Betta fish is one of the ornamental fish that is easily maintained. Betta fish farming does not require large areas and large capital. Can be done as a home-based business.
Betta fish Are freshwater fish from the tropics. Many found in the waters of Southeast Asia, including Indonesia. In the wild these fish live in groups. Habitat is in swamps, lakes and rivers that are calm.
One of the features of betta fish is its durability. Able to live in an oxygen-deprived water environment. Can be maintained in small jars without using an aerator. This ability is obtained because betta fish have a labyrinthine cavity like in the human lung. The labyrinth can make it survive in an oxygen-poor environment.
Betta Fish Type
Judging from the hobbyists known there are two kinds of betta fish, namely betta ornamental and betta adu. Betta ornamental maintained for the beauty of the shape, color and movement. Whereas the hickey fight is kept for fighting. Keep in mind, in some countries fighting betta including illegal actions.
Betta ornamental and betta fights are distinguished based on their shape and aggressive nature. To find out more, please see the Betta Betta vs Betta Betta.
The scientific community records more than 73 species of betta fish that exist on this earth. However, not all species are popular as pet fish. Betta fish species released on the market are mostly from the complex splendens group, which consists of Betta splendens, Betta stiktos, Betta mahachai, Betta smaragdina and Betta imbellis. As well as variants of the results of crossing of these species. See also types of betta fish.
Choosing Betta Fish Broodstock
To start betta fish farming, the first step that must be prepared is to get quality breeders or seedlings. Good broodstock should come from superior offspring, in good condition, free from disease and congenital defects. Store male and female broodstock in separate places.
Before spawning is done, make sure the male and female parent are in the mature phase of the gonad or ready to mate. The characteristics of parents who have shown readiness to get married are as follows.
For betta men:
At least 4-8 months old
Long body shape
The fins are long and the colors are bright and attractive
His movements are aggressive and nimble
For female betta:
At least 3-4 months old
Round body shape, slightly distended abdomen
The fins are short and the color is not attractive
His movements are slow
Betta Fish Spawning
After the male and female broodstock are ready to spawn, provide a container in the form of a plastic basin or small aquarium with a size of 20x20x20 cm. Also prepare plastic cups for the female betta fish. Also provide aquatic plants such as kayambang.
In one marriage, betta fish can produce up to 1000 eggs. The eggs will hatch within 24 hours after fertilization. Based on the experience of the farmers, the death rate of betta fish hatchery is quite high. In one mating, usually only 30-50 live betta fish can be harvested.
Male broodstock can be mated up to 8 times with intervals of about 2-3 weeks. While female brooders are advised to only be mated once. If forced, in the next marriage there will be a decrease in gender diversity. Where fish chicks are increasingly dominated by female sex.
Here are the steps for spawning betta fish:
Fill the spawning place with 10-15 cm high water. For the record, use clear ground water or river water. Precipitate the water first to be used for at least one night. Avoid using bottled water or PAM water that smells of chlorine.
Add to the container water plants, as a place of shelter. But the placement of aquatic plants should not be too dense. Because aquatic plants have the potential to take dissolved oxygen in the water.
Add male betta fish that are ready to mate. Leave the fish for one day in a container. Male betta fish will make air bubbles. The point is to store fertilized eggs. To lure the male to make bubbles, add female betta fish but separate. The trick, the female fish is put in a clear plastic cup (former glass) and immersed it in the aquarium where the male fish are located.
After the male parent makes bubbles, enter the female parent. Betta fish spawning time usually occurs around 7-10 am or 4-6 pm. Betta fish are quite sensitive when mating, you should cover the container with a newspaper or place it in a room that avoids people going back and forth and noise.
After fertilization occurs immediately raise the female broodstock, because the male is responsible for raising and maintaining the breed. With his mouth the male will pick up the fertilized egg and place it on the bubbles earlier. If the female parent is not removed, the fertilized eggs will be eaten by the female.
After approximately one day the eggs will become buoyant. During the next 3 days, the burayak does not need to be fed because there are nutrients carried in the eggs. Male betta fish will also fast for keeping the burayak.
After three days from the eggs hatch, give water lice (moina or daphnia). Feeding should not be more than the burayak because the feed will pollute the water and cause death in the burayak.
Male broodstock is only taken after 2 weeks of age after counting from hatching. Transfer the seedlings to a larger container and provide larger water lice or mosquito larvae.
After 1.5 months, the fish can be sorted based on sex. Then separate the fish into an enlargement container.
Betta Fish Feed
Favorite foods that are usually given to betta fish are water fleas, silk worms and mosquito larvae. Feed should be given as often as possible, for example 3-4 times a day. The more often the frequency the better. Better little by little but often all at once. This is to reduce the risk of accumulation of leftovers that can trigger the development of the disease.
Water fleas can be found in stagnant gutters, or purchased from an aquarium store. If this is not possible, we can grow our own water fleas. Please see how to process daphnia and moina water fleas.
Betta Fish Care
As explained before, betta fish are relatively resilient. Can be maintained in an aquarium without using an aerator. This fish is resistant to oxygen-deprived water conditions. Even so, it is recommended to maintain water quality by giving it aeration and cleaning filters. So that fish can develop perfectly and always in good condition. Especially for fish care contests.
It is not recommended to store more than one adult male betta fish in an aquarium. Especially if the size of the aquarium is small and there is no shelter. Fish can attack each other. As a result, the fins are not smooth and the color does not come out.
Especially for betta fish, we can put it in a small glass jar. Based on some experiences, to make fish more aggressive, keep it in a dark place. Do not place fish jars close together. Because betta fish will continue to be in a condition ready to attack and crash into glass. Give a translucent seal between the jars.
Change the water contained in the container regularly. See if there is accumulation of dirt and food scraps at the bottom of the container. Stacking can cause disease and even death in fish due to water pollution.