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Tips jogging dan manfaatnya

Tips jogging dan manfaatnya

Objective To examine the proposition that a used infant mattress is associated with an increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome.

Layout Case control analysis.

Setting Scotland (population 5.1 million, with roughly 53 000 births annually ).

Participants 131 infants who died of sudden infant death syndrome between 1 January 1996 and 31 May 2000 and age, season, and obstetric unit matched control infants.

Main Outcome measures use of a baby mattress used by another child and place of sleep.

Outcomes Regular use of an infant mattress formerly employed by another kid was significantly associated with an elevated risk of sudden infant death syndrome (multivariate odds ratio 3.07, 95% confidence interval 1.51 into 6.22. Use of a baby mattress for sleep has been correlated with increased risk. The association was significantly stronger than when it had been from the home, when the mattress was from another home.

Conclusion A significant association exists between use of a baby mattress and an elevated risk of sudden infant death syndrome, particularly if the mattress is from another home. Lack of evidence is available to judge whether this connection is effect and cause.


In 1997 we reported that a study that indicated that infants sleeping in a baby mattress formerly employed by another kid (used infant mattress) had an increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We report instance control info from Scotland, gathered from 1 to 31 May 2000 with a poll. There are certain things you should keep in mind in process of defining what is the best futon mattress.

Participants and methods

The Registrar General for Scotland reported all deaths occurring after the seventh day of existence to the end of their first year and supplied the computerised maternity record. For unexpected deaths, we had been notified by the pathologist. In general, 195 out of 751 baby deaths were categorised because of sudden infant death syndrome involving January 1996 and May 2000.

We Identified infants born immediately before and after the index case to act as controllers. We made home visits to complete a questionnaire within 28 days of the index case's death to minimise gaps in age associated conditions between controls and cases. Questionnaires were completed on 131 of 195 cases and 278 controls. The qualities of these cases with and without a meeting were similar in terms of age and deprivation category.

Data collection

The Questionnaire provided data and medical in addition to details of care practices. The difference from our previous study was that we gathered data from control families about child care practices daily and night before interview so that we could compare them with information on cases for the night and day of departure (referred to as last sleep). We requested about cosleeping for sleep, such as where, for how long, and with whom.

Tips jogging dan manfaatnya

Socioeconomic Status has been assessed by two sets of signs. The first was an examination of deprivation based on postcode of residence. The second was a single appraisal based on mother's marital status, mother living independently, mother and dad currently used, if the mother was in paid employment before the baby's birth, and age mom and dad left full time education. We evaluated exposure by discovering use of cigarettes.

Exposure To a used baby mattress was assessed by asking parents regarding routine night and afternoon sleeping place for both cases and controls and discovering the condition of this mattress (new for this baby or, if not, how a number of different infants had used it and whether it came from another home). We also decided the area of sleep set of sleep to get night and controllers the day, and whether night or day before the interview. Read more futon mattres reviews at medium:

Analysis Of information

The Dataset comprised 131 cases and controls that were 278. For the primary analysis, we excluded babies who normally slept in their parents bed during the nighttime (14 cases and 13 controls). We used the regression process, which allows the addition of all of the information, including those instances without any controllers. We treated all factors which were related to sudden infant death syndrome on univariate analysis as potential confounding variables. The factors were entered in classes (socioeconomic, not modifiable, possibly modifiable) into the logistic regression of case versus control and removed singly in a stepwise manner beginning with the least significant until all remaining variables were significant with a probability of < 0.10. The following group of factors was subsequently added and examined . More detail of this modelling strategy is given on


The Main analysis showed a substantial association between sudden infant death syndrome and routine use of a secondhand baby mattress (odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.9 to 5.1) (table). The association remained unchanged, when the mother not in paid employment before the birth of baby was forced back into the multivariate model. The association remained when cases and controls were eliminated and when the dataset was restricted to people on an mattress.

A Stronger association was seen for two or more users than for one, but this difference wasn't significant. With used infant mattress in the same home as the comparison group, an infant mattress from the other home was significantly related to sudden infant death syndrome (2.9, 1.0 to 8.3). A parallel multivariate conditional logistic regression with just matched cases and controls supported a significant association (9.6, 2.1 to 43.8).


Role Of chance, bias, and confounding

As The focus of the study was on two topics (sharing a bed, sofa, or chair during last sleep and application of a previously used baby mattress), a spurious finding of significance because of numerous statistical tests could not arise. We found that the null hypothesis of no affiliation with a used baby mattress is rejected with a P value < 0.001. A chance finding is therefore unlikely.

Bias Once a systematic error affects the choice of cases and controls is possible. We could interview just 131 of 195 instances by pathologists within 28 days because of delays in notification. However, cases interviewed and not interviewed were not significantly different concerning socioeconomic status measured by deprivation group or in terms of maternal age.

We Babies born prior to and following the case at precisely the exact same hospital as controllers. But a systematic difference in infant age for queries about last sleep (night before interview for controllers, night time of death for cases) was present (mean 18.5 times ). The multivariate random effects version contained a continuous factor for a quadratic function and infant age to manage non linearity, so it is not likely that this source of bias describes the association. The association remained when cases were excluded because no last sleep for controllers was on a Friday or Saturday. Finally, a conditional logistic regression using only cases and thus for any possible bias due to systematic differences in the instances for which controls did or did not exist, showed the same association. Some possible sources of prejudice to explain the observed association have been ruled out.

Confounding Is the most obvious possibility for an association between sudden infant death syndrome and use of a used mattress. Deprivation category, which we originated from data not obtained by survey, was the most resilient variable in the models. As this was the socioeconomic variable that remained before debut of infant mattress, we attempted to force not in paid employment before infant's birth. This didn't change the importance of infant mattress, which argues against the existence of residual confounding.

Additional Confounding items such as sharing and parity beds on the night of departure were at the multivariate model. Restriction of the dataset to look at infant mattress that was used eliminated any bed sharing impact, but the association stayed.

Cause And impact

The Association between sudden infant death syndrome and employed infant mattresses is relatively strong (likelihood ratio 3), and the timing sequence of use of mattress and passing is harmonious. In addition, toxigenic bacteria which have been implicated in sudden infant death syndrome (3 ) do live in used baby cribs. (5) However, we found no dose response effect and also the only other study with comparable advice did not demonstrate a link between old infant mattresses and the sudden infant death syndrome. (6)


As Our findings are robust over a range of statistical approaches, we conclude that there is a valid association between sudden infant death syndrome and use of a baby mattresspreviously used by a different child, especially if from a different home. There remains insufficient evidence to establish a cause and effect connection.

What Is already known about this topic

The Major risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome are sleeping prone and parental smoking

One Study indicates that the syndrome is associated with sleeping on a baby mattresspreviously employed by another kid

What This research adds

New Case control data reveal that the association involving a formerly used baby mattress and sudden infant death syndrome is valid

When Origin of mattress is categorised, the association is significant only if the mattress is from another home

Insufficient Evidence is available to judge if this can be a cause and effect relation

Multivariate random Effects evaluation without used infant mattress and

With used infant mattress on data from babies Who were not routine

cosleepers and their controls

Diubah oleh henryblack
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