Main Content

[Thread Pencerahan] How Stuff Works : E-BOMB/EMP weaponry
dari diskusi di thread : Korut bikin EMP dengan asistensi Rusia. ai tertarik untuk membahas apakah EMP ini masuk di jajaran yg mana? Lethal ato Non-Lethal Weaponry.. ai ubek2 nemu link menarik tapi tetep gak bisa kasih konklusi EMP ini masuk di ranah yg mana. so kita diskusiin aja bareng2.. emoticon-Big Grin



Anyone who's been through a prolonged power outage knows that it's an extremely trying experience. Within an hour of losing electricity, you develop a healthy appreciation of all the electrical devices you rely on in life. A couple hours later, you start pacing around your house. After a few days without lights, electric heat or TV, your stress level shoots through the roof.
But in the grand scheme of things, that's nothing. If an outage hits an entire city, and there aren't adequate emergency resources, people may die from exposure, companies may suffer huge productivity losses and millions of dollars of food may spoil. If a power outage hit on a much larger scale, it could shut down the electronic networks that keep governments and militaries running. We are utterly dependent on power, and when it's gone, things get very bad, very fast.
An electromagnetic bomb, or e-bomb, is a weapon designed to take advantage of this dependency. But instead of simply cutting off power in an area, an e-bomb would actually destroy most machines that use electricity. Generators would be useless, cars wouldn't run, and there would be no chance of making a phone call. In a matter of seconds, a big enough e-bomb could thrust an entire city back 200 years or cripple a military unit.
The U.S. military has been pursuing the idea of an e-bomb for decades, and many believe it now has such a weapon in its arsenal. On the other end of the scale, terrorist groups could be building low-tech e-bombs to inflict massive damage on the United States.

[Thread Pencerahan] How Stuff Works : E-BOMB/EMP weaponry


The basic idea of an e-bomb -- or more broadly, an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) weapon -- is pretty simple. These sorts of weapons are designed to overwhelm electrical circuitry with an intense electromagnetic field.
If you've read How Radio Works or How Electromagnets Work, then you know an electromagnetic field in itself is nothing special. The radio signals that transmit AM, FM, television and cell phone calls are all electromagnetic energy, as is ordinary light, microwaves and x-rays.
For our purposes, the most important thing to understand about electromagnetism is that electric current generates magnetic fields and changing magnetic fields can induce electric current. This page from How Radio Works explains that a simple radio transmitter generates a magnetic field by fluctuating electrical current in a circuit. This magnetic field, in turn, can induce an electrical current in another conductor, such as a radio receiver antenna. If the fluctuating electrical signal represents particular information, the receiver can decode it.
A low intensity radio transmission only induces sufficient electrical current to pass on a signal to a receiver. But if you greatly increased the intensity of the signal (the magnetic field), it would induce a much larger electrical current. A big enough current would fry the semiconductor components in the radio, disintegrating it beyond repair.
Picking up a new radio would be the least of your concerns, of course. The intense fluctuating magnetic field could induce a massive current in just about any other electrically conductive object -- for example phone lines, power lines and even metal pipes. These unintentional antennas would pass the current spike on to any other electrical components down the line (say, a network of computers hooked up to phone lines). A big enough surge could burn out semiconductor devices, melt wiring, fry batteries and even explode transformers.
There are a number of possible ways of generating and "delivering" such a magnetic field. In the next section, we'll look at a few possible EMP weaponry concepts.

bakar menyan panggil mh om plenker yang tahu banyak soal perang elektronikemoticon-Cendol (S)

[Thread Pencerahan] How Stuff Works : E-BOMB/EMP weaponry

The Nuclear EMP Threat
E-bombs started popping up in headlines only recently, but the concept of EMP weaponry has been around for a long time. From the 1960s through the 1980s, the United States was most concerned with the possibility of a nuclear EMP attack.
This idea dates back to nuclear weapons research from the 1950s. In 1958, American tests of hydrogen bombs yielded some surprising results. A test blast over the Pacific Ocean ended up blowing out streetlights in parts of Hawaii, hundreds of miles away. The blast even disrupted radio equipment as far away as Australia.
Researchers concluded that the electrical disturbance was due to the Compton effect, theorized by physicist Arthur Compton in 1925. Compton's assertion was that photons of electromagnetic energy could knock loose electrons from atoms with low atomic numbers. In the 1958 test, researchers concluded, the photons from the blast's intense gamma radiation knocked a large number of electrons free from oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the atmosphere. This flood of electrons interacted with the Earth's magnetic field to create a fluctuating electric current, which induced a powerful magnetic field. The resulting electromagnetic pulse induced intense electrical currents in conductive materials over a wide area.
During the cold war, U.S. intelligence feared the Soviet Union would launch a nuclear missile and detonate it some 30 miles (50 kilometers) above the United States, to achieve the same effect on a larger scale. They feared that the resulting electromagnetic burst would knock out electrical equipment across the United States.
Such an attack (from another nation) is still a possibility, but that is no longer the United States' main concern. These days, U.S. intelligence is giving non-nuclear EMP devices, such as e-bombs, much more attention. These weapons wouldn't affect as wide an area, because they wouldn't blast photons so high above the Earth. But they could be used to create total blackouts on a more local level.


[Thread Pencerahan] How Stuff Works : E-BOMB/EMP weaponry

Non-nuclear EMP Weapons
The United States most likely has EMP weapons in its arsenal, but it's not clear in what form. Much of the United States' EMP research has involved high power microwaves (HPMs). Reporters have widely speculated that they do exist and that such weapons could be used in a war with Iraq.
Most likely, the United States' HPM e-bombs aren't really bombs at all. They're probably more like super powerful microwave ovens that can generate a concentrated beam of microwave energy. One possibility is the HPM device would be mounted to a cruise missile, disrupting ground targets from above.
This technology is advanced and expensive and so would be inaccessible to military forces without considerable resources. But that's only one piece of the e-bomb story. Using inexpensive supplies and rudimentary engineering knowledge, a terrorist organization could easily construct a dangerous e-bomb device.
In late September 2001, Popular Mechanics published an article outlining this possibility. The article focused on flux compression generator bombs (FCGs), which date back to the 1950s. This sort of e-bomb has a fairly simple, potentially inexpensive design, illustrated below. (This conceptual bomb design comes from this report written by Carlo Kopp, a defense analyst. The design concept has been widely available to the public for some time. Nobody would be able to construct a functioning e-bomb from this description alone).
The bomb consists of a metal cylinder (called the armature), which is surrounded by a coil of wire (the stator winding). The armature cylinder is filled with high explosive, and a sturdy jacket surrounds the entire device. The stator winding and the armature cylinder are separated by empty space. The bomb also has a power source, such as a bank of capacitors, which can be connected to the stator.
Here's the sequence of events when the bomb goes off:
A switch connects the capacitors to the stator, sending an electrical current through the wires. This generates an intense magnetic field.
A fuze mechanism ignites the explosive material. The explosion travels as a wave through the middle of the armature cylinder.
As the explosion makes its way through the cylinder, the cylinder comes in contact with the stator winding. This creates a short circuit, cutting the stator off from its power supply.
The moving short circuit compresses the magnetic field, generating an intense electromagnetic burst.

[Thread Pencerahan] How Stuff Works : E-BOMB/EMP weaponry

Most likely, this type of weapon would affect a relatively small area -- nothing on the order of a nuclear EMP attack -- but it could do some serious damage.
In the next section, we'll look at some possible effects of an EMP attack.

E-Bomb Effects
The United States is drawn to EMP technology because it is potentially non-lethal, but is still highly destructive. An E-bomb attack would leave buildings standing and spare lives, but it could destroy a sizeable military.
There is a range of possible attack scenarios. Low-level electromagnetic pulses would temporarily jam electronics systems, more intense pulses would corrupt important computer data and very powerful bursts would completely fry electric and electronic equipment.
In modern warfare, the various levels of attack could accomplish a number of important combat missions without racking up many casualties. For example, an e-bomb could effectively neutralize:
vehicle control systems
targeting systems, on the ground and on missiles and bombs
communications systems
navigation systems
long and short-range sensor systems
EMP weapons could be especially useful in an invasion of Iraq, because a pulse might effectively neutralize underground bunkers. Most of Iraq's underground bunkers are hard to reach with conventional bombs and missiles. A nuclear blast could effectively demolish many of these bunkers, but this would take a devastating toll on surrounding areas. An electromagnetic pulse could pass through the ground, knocking out the bunker's lights, ventilation systems, communications -- even electric doors. The bunker would be completely uninhabitable.
U.S. forces are also highly vulnerable to EMP attack, however. In recent years, the U.S. military has added sophisticated electronics to the full range of its arsenal. This electronic technology is largely built around consumer-grade semiconductor devices, which are highly sensitive to any power surge. More rudimentary vacuum tube technology would actually stand a better chance of surviving an e-bomb attack.
A widespread EMP attack in any country would compromise a military's ability to organize itself. Ground troops might have perfectly functioning non-electric weapons (like machine guns), but they wouldn't have the equipment to plan an attack or locate the enemy. Effectively, an EMP attack could reduce any military unit into a guerilla-type army.
While EMP weapons are generally considered non-lethal, they could easily kill people if they were directed towards particular targets. If an EMP knocked out a hospital's electricity, for example, any patient on life support would die immediately. An EMP weapon could also neutralize vehicles, including aircraft, causing catastrophic accidents.
In the end, the most far-reaching effect of an e-bomb could be psychological. A full-scale EMP attack in a developed country would instantly bring modern life to a screeching halt. There would be plenty of survivors, but they would find themselves in a very different world.

terakhir liat efeknya di hongkong pas peristiwa invasi kaiju
HEMP : High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse

Quote:High-altitude electromagnetic pulses (HEMP) produced by high-altitude bursts occur in an area of the atmosphere where the density of the air is low. Because of this, the gamma rays can travel very far before they are absorbed. These rays travel downward into the increasingly dense atmosphere. The electric field has a rise time of about 1 nanosecond. Even with such a short pulse, the effects can be tremendous. For a high altitude burst, the effects can also be far reaching. By many calculations, one properly placed nuclear bomb (possibly hidden in a satellite) detonated above the center of the United States could produce huge electrical fields. "The EMP from a single hydrogen bomb exploded 300 kilometers over the heart of the United States could set up an electrical field 50 kV/m strong over nearly all of North America". Since EMP is electromagnetic radiation traveling at the speed of light, all of the area could possibly be effected almost simultaneously.

All communications, television, radio, cars, trucks, planes, etc would be effected resulting in an Electronic blanket where all electronics in our country could be neutralized including the knowledge of the Nuclear attack... The U.S. Air Force hit Iraqi TV with a electromagetic pulse device called the "E-Bomb" during the last Iraqi war in order to knock it off the air. The highly classified bomb created a brief pulse of microwaves powerful enough to fry Iraqi computers, blind radar, silence radios, trigger crippling power outages and disable the electronic ignitions in their vehicles and aircraft. In the 1980s, Americans feared neutron bombs that could kill everyone but leave buildings, roads, and cars intact. Today, Americans should fear a different kind of nuclear threat that can instantaneously destroy power grids, electronic systems, and communications along an entire coast but spare people.

This destruction would result from the split-second release of a high-energy electromagnetic pulse (EMP) after a nuclear bomb is detonated miles above the Earth and outside the atmosphere. Within a week of the blast, although no one would be instantly killed, the disruption of food and water supplies and health care caused by the shutdown of transportation, computers, networks, electronic equipment, and communication systems would have serious consequences for millions of people. Recovering from such an attack could take years. The U.S. military first witnessed this phenomenon after a series of high-altitude nuclear tests in the Johnston Atoll in 1962 generated a disruption in electronic equipment in Hawaii, nearly 1,000 miles away. According to reports, the EMP interrupted radio broadcasts, caused streetlights to malfunction and burglar alarms to sound, and resulted in electronic failures across the islands despite their great distance from the test site.


The scientific principles behind generating a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse are relatively easy to understand. A nuclear weapon is detonated between 25 miles and 300 miles above the Earth's surface; the radiation reaching the atmosphere interacts with air molecules to produce high-energy electrons that speed across the Earth's magnetic field as an instantaneous, invisible electromagnetic pulse. A nuclear device must be detonated above the Earth's atmosphere in order to generate the high-altitude EMP effects. An EMP can have devastating consequences for developed countries, because any metallic conductor in the area affected becomes a "receiver" for the powerful energy burst released by the blast. Such receivers include anything with electronic wiring--from airplanes and automobiles to computers, railroad tracks, and communication lines. If systems connected to these receivers are not protected, they will be damaged by the intense energy pulse.

Indeed, depending on the strength of the pulse and the vulnerability of the equipment, the effects could range from interrupted phone conversations and radio interference to the melting of components in every type of electrical system. An EMP damages unprotected electronic equipment within the blast's "line of sight." The size of the area in harm's way (the EMP's "footprint" on the Earth's surface) is determined by the altitude of the explosion. The higher the altitude, the greater the land area affected (see Map 1). A Scud-type ballistic missile launched from a vessel off the U.S. coast and detonated at an altitude of 95 miles would degrade electronic systems across one-fourth of the United States. A Taepo Dong-2 missile launched from North Korea probably could deliver a warhead 300 miles above America--enough to degrade electronic systems throughout the country. Crude weapons with low yields, like those used against Japan in World War II, would have ample power to cripple the United States.

Possible EMP Scenarios

Scenario #1: A rogue-state leader decides to launch an EMP attack on the United States to improve the odds of winning a regional conflict. After obtaining an ICBM equipped with a nuclear warhead, the rogue leader invades one of the US Allies. The United States is called upon to liberate its ally. A few weeks into the war, the said leader launches a ballistic missile armed with a nuclear warhead toward the United States. It is detonated 50 miles above a section of the American West. Although no people are harmed, there is a regional blackout. The rogue state gloats, having leveled the playing field and weakened U.S. resolve by demonstrating his ability to deliver a nuclear weapon to U.S. soil. The President refuses to launch a counter nuclear attack out of fear that it would kill millions of innocent people.

Scenario #2: An enemy explodes a nuclear device over a theater of combat or an area containing allied assets to cripple the United States. North Korea has decided to take South Korea but faces 37,000 U.S. troops stationed there. It explodes a nuclear device over the extreme southern part of the Korean peninsula. The EMP effect covers all of Korea, with the strongest effects occurring below the demilitarized zone. North Korea's military is harmed, but the damage is far less severe than that experienced by U.S. and South Korean forces since they rely on modern electronics to a much greater extent. Because the U.S. and allied forces are unable to utilize their advanced radar, communications, and networked systems, they suffer a major decline in warfighting capabilities. Electronic systems on a carrier battlegroup on its way to the Korean theater are damaged as well. As a result, the United States is seriously constrained in responding to a North Korea attack across the demilitarized zone.

Scenario #3: A surprise terrorist attack is launched against the United States, but the aggressor cannot be identified. An unknown aggressor launches a ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead from a ship located at sea 150 miles east of New York City. The device explodes 80 miles above New York, spreading its effect over most of New York and Pennsylvania. Wall Street shuts down, massive traffic tie-ups occur throughout the metropolitan region, and air traffic control systems are severely degraded. The crew of the ship immediately abandons the vessel and sinks it, and no one admits responsibility. Analysis leads the U.S. government to believe that the missile was probably a Scud variant, but because the United States cannot identify who launched it, there is no basis for retaliation.

Scenario #4: An enemy uses an EMP blast as part of its war strategy against a U.S. ally. Suppose China commences another military exercise in the Taiwan Strait. As part of the exercise, it launches a ballistic missile in a trajectory over Taiwan. When the missile reaches 300 miles southeast of Taiwan, its nuclear warhead is detonated, releasing an EMP that affects the entire island. The ensuing blackout incites mass confusion and seriously degrades the warfighting ability of the Taiwanese military. Taiwan is unable to defend itself and is forced either to sue for peace with the mainland or to call in the United States to defend it from attack.

Scenario #5: A rogue leader wants to attack the United States but evade retaliation. Iran, which the 1998 Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States (the Rumsfeld Commission) reported "has the technical capability and resources to demonstrate an ICBM-range ballistic missile...within five years of the decision to deploy," decides to take hostile action against the United States after developing an ICBM. It knows that a direct nuclear attack on the United States would result in the destruction of Tehran. It launches two missiles with nuclear warheads that detonate 250 miles above Illinois and Wyoming. The United States does not retaliate because no one is immediately killed. Not knowing whether Iran has other nuclear warheads, the United States decides to limit its response against Iran rather than risk a direct nuclear attack on a U.S. city.

Not everyone agrees about the effects of a high-altitude EMP for civil infrastructure. A 1991 study on the "Effects of Geomagnetic Disturbances on Electric Power Transmission Systems" published by the Electrical Power Research Institute, for example, points out that natural phenomena such as solar storms may cause more damage than an EMP blast. But according to Dr. Gordon Soper, a former Defense Department official responsible for nuclear, chemical, and biological defense programs who testified before the House Small Business Committee, "an EMP attack would result in an unacceptable disruption and damage to our commercial electronic infrastructure." Almost without exception, experts agree that a high-altitude EMP would damage America's electronics. They disagree about the extent of the damage and what should be done to prevent it.

[Thread Pencerahan] How Stuff Works : E-BOMB/EMP weaponry
High Power Microwave (HPM) / E-Bomb

Quote:High-power microwave (HPM) sources have been under investigation for several years as potential weapons for a variety of combat, sabotage, and terrorist applications. Due to classification restrictions, details of this work are relatively unknown outside the military community and its contractors. A key point to recognize is the insidious nature of HPM. Due to the gigahertz-band frequencies (4 to 20 GHz) involved, HPM has the capability to penetrate not only radio front-ends, but also the most minute shielding penetrations throughout the equipment. At sufficiently high levels, as discussed, the potential exists for significant damage to devices and circuits. For these reasons, HPM should be of interest to the broad spectrum of EMC practitioners.

Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) and High Powered Microwave (HMP) Weapons offer a significant capability against electronic equipment susceptible to damage by transient power surges. This weapon generates a very short, intense energy pulse producing a transient surge of thousands of volts that kills semiconductor devices. The conventional EMP and HMP weapons can disable non-shielded electronic devices including practically any modern electronic device within the effective range of the weapon.

The effectiveness of an EMP device is determined by the power generated and the characteristic of the pulse. The shorter pulse wave forms, such as microwaves, are far more effective against electronic equipment and more difficult to harden against. Current efforts focus on converting the energy from an explosive munitions to supply the electromagnetic pulse. This method produces significant levels of directionally focused electromagnetic energy.

Future advances may provide the compactness needed to weaponize the capability in a bomb or missile warhead. Currently, the radius of the weapon is not as great as nuclear EMP effects. Open literature sources indicate that effective radii of "hundreds of meters or more" are possible. EMP and HPM devices can disable a large variety of military or infrastructure equipment over a relatively broad area. This can be useful for dispersed targets.

A difficulty is determining the appropriate level of energy to achieve the desired effects. This will require detailed knowledge of the target equipment and the environment (walls, buildings). The obvious counter-measure is the shielding or hardening of electronic equipment. Currently, only critical military equipment is hardened e.g., strategic command and control systems. Hardening of existing equipment is difficult and adds significant weight and expense. As a result, a large variety of commercial and military equipment will be susceptible to this type of attack.

The US Navy reportedly used a new class of highly secret, non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse warheads during the opening hours of the Persian Gulf War to disrupt and destroy Iraqi electronics systems. The warheads converted the energy of a conventional explosion into a pulse of radio energy. The effect of the microwave attacks on Iraqi air defense and headquarters was difficult to determine because the effects of the HPM blasts were obscured by continuous jamming, the use of stealthy F-117 aircraft, and the destruction of Iraq's electrical grid. The warheads used during the Gulf War were experimental warheads, not standard weapons deployed with fielded forces.

Col. William G. Heckathorn, commander of the Phillips Research Site and the deputy director of the Directed Energy Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory, was presented the Legion of Merit medal during special retirement ceremonies in May 1998. In a citation accompanying the medal, Col. Heckathorn was praised for having provided superior vision, leadership, and direct guidance that resulted in the first high-power microwave weapon prototypes delivered to the warfighter. The citation noted that "Col. Heckathorn united all directed energy development within Army, Navy and Air Force, which resulted in an efficient, focused, warfighter-oriented tri-service research program." In December of 1994 he came to Kirtland to become the director of the Advanced Weapons and Survivability Directorate at the Phillips Laboratory. Last year he became the commander of the Phillips Laboratory while still acting as the director of the Advanced Weapons and Survivability Directorate.

As with a conventional munition, a microwave munition is a "single shot" munition that has a similar blast and fragmentation radius. However, while the explosion produces a blast, the primary mission is to generate the energy that powers the microwave device. Thus, for a microwave munition, the primary kill mechanism is the microwave energy, which greatly increases the radius and the footprint by, in some cases, several orders of magnitude. For example, a 2000-pound microwave munition will have a minimum radius of approximately 200 meters, or footprint of approximately 126,000 square meters.

Studies have examined the incorporation of a high power microwave weapon into the weapons bay of a conceptual uninhabited combat aerial vehicle. The CONOPS, electromagnetic compatibility and hardening (to avoid a self-kill), power requirements and potential power supplies, and antenna characteristics have been analyzed. Extensive simulations of potential antennas have been performed. The simulations examined the influence of the aircraft structure on the antenna patterns and the levels of leakage through apertures in the weapons bay. Other investigations examined issues concerning the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of composite aircraft structures.

Collateral damage from E-bombs is dependent on the size and design of the specific bomb. An E-bomb that utilizes explosive power to obtain its damaging microwaves will result in typical blast and shrapnel damage. Ideally, an E-Bomb would be designed to minimize and dissipate most of the mechanical collateral damage. Human exposure to microwave radiation is hazardous within several meters of the epicenter. However, there is a relatively low risk of bodily damage at further distances.

Any non-military electronics within range of the E-bomb that have not been protected have a high probability of being damaged or destroyed. The best way to defend against E-bomb attack is to destroy the platform or delivery vehicle in which the E-bomb resides. Another method of protection is to keep all essential electronics within an electrically conductive enclosure, called a Faraday cage. This prevents the damaging electromagentic field from interacting with vital equipment. The problem with Faraday cages is that most vital equipment needs to be in contact with the outside world. This contact point can allow the electromagentic field to enter the cage, which ultimately renders the enclosure useless. There are ways to protect against these Faraday cage flaws, but the fact remains that this is a dangerous weakpoint. In most circumstances E-bombs are categorized as 'non-lethal weapons' because of the minimal collateral damage they create. The E-bomb's 'non-lethal' categorization gives military commanders more politically-friendly options to choose from.

[Thread Pencerahan] How Stuff Works : E-BOMB/EMP weaponry

Quote:AS MARK THOMPSON of Time magazine writes, "Every war has its wonder weapon." And in an upcoming war against Iraq, we are told to "get ready to meet the high-power microwave." The way Thompson describes it, the "HPM" sounds almost too good to be true: They "fry the sophisticated computers and electronic gear necessary to produce, protect, store and deliver [chemical and biological] agents. The powerful electromagnetic pulses can travel into deeply buried bunkers through ventilation shafts, plumbing and antennas. But unlike conventional explosives, they won't spew deadly agents into the air, where they could poison Iraqi civilians or advancing U.S. troops."

But Thompson's brief article leaves one thirsting for a bit more. Exactly how are high-power microwaves, aka "e-bombs," sent to targets? Who delivers them? In fact, who makes them? And even though HPMs are specifically designed to avoid collateral damage, what happens if you find yourself directly beneath the microwaves' rays?

HIGH-POWER MICROWAVES are currently being tested at the Air Force Research Laboratory on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. The laboratory is divided into directorates--one of them devoted to "directed energy." And within this directorate you will find the High Power Microwave Division. It is here that scientists are working to harness HPMs, trying to maximize their power while insuring the safety of their operators and unintended targets. They work in two facilities: One of them contains "Shiva Star," the Air Force's largest pulsed-power system that produces 120,000 volts and 10 million amps in one-millionth of a second, creating a power flow equal to a trillion watts. The other facility is found deep in the Manzano Mountains where tests are conducted not only for high-power microwaves but also high-energy plasmas.One gets the feeling that decades from now, when our soldiers are using blasters and plasma rifles, Kirtland Air Force Base will be looked upon as this century's Los Alamos. In fact, Kirtland is also where a solid-state laser is being developed, though most experts believe its tactical application is still ten years away. Outside defense contractors are also highly involved--through intensely guarded research and development operations with names like Skunk Works (at Lockheed Martin) and Phantom Works (at Boeing)--what Daniel Goure, vice president of the Lexington Institute, calls "the black world."

If you ask the folks at the Air Force Research Laboratory, they'll tell you they "regret that there is very little that is releasable on the subject." But their fact sheets do go some length toward explaining their intentions: "Whereas a typical microwave oven generates less than 1,500 watts of power, the Division is working with equipment that can generate millions of watts of power. When microwaves encounter modern microelectronics-based systems, the results can be disastrous to the electronics--causing systems to 'burn out' and fail or function improperly. This heavy reliance on electronic components in today's weaponry makes high-power microwave weapons attractive."

How will the military deploy the HPMs? Andrew Koch, Washington bureau chief of Jane's Defence Weekly, says that at the moment, they will most likely be delivered via cruise missiles. "The missile would fly slow over a target and then emit a pulse in a single shot." That shot would zap anything electronic on the ground--and also on the cruise missile itself, making it useless thereafter. "This is the sort of high-power microwave that will be available for use in a war in Iraq."

But Koch stresses the problems of microwaves versus lasers. "Unlike a laser, high-power microwaves are a lot more difficult to control. They aren't as tunable as lasers." HPMs are emitted from sidelobes and not as a single beam. "The rays can reflect off the ground and affect the pilots above," he says. Hence the use of cruise missiles for now rather than strike fighters or even unmanned drones. (Back at Kirtland Air Force Base, however, microwave tests are already being done using F-16 fighters housed in "anechoic" chambers--rooms free of all echoes and reverberations.)So what of the effects? Time's Mark Thompson warns of the dangers of using HPMs near hospitals or anyone wearing pacemakers. Daniel Goure of the Lexington Institute says "there is human testing going on now for some HPMs. There is also a body of medical and environmental testing data, some based on the allegations of illnesses produced by high voltage power lines." But in an article last summer in Jane's Defence Weekly, Koch and co-author Nick Cook asked a scientist familiar with the effects of high-power microwaves what would happen if someone were hit by a megawatt HPM weapon: "All the fluid in their body cells would instantly vaporise into steam. It would happen so fast, you wouldn't even be aware of it," the scientist says. "If, on the other hand, you were caught in the sidelobe of the beam, or even by a weak reflection of the main beam off a metal surface--which could easily happen in a city--you would probably suffer terrible burns as well as permanent brain damage."

Yet Koch reminds us that the reason for the e-bomb is to avoid what happened in the last Gulf War when a bomb ripped through an Iraqi military bunker that was also used as a shelter for civilians. "In this case, the e-bomb would fry the electronics on the surface but no one underground in the actual bunker would get hurt." (On the other hand, Koch says you could be harmed if you happened to be "on the surface.")

Human rights organizations and international law watchdogs will be carefully observing how HPMs are managed in a war on Iraq--ideally used against deeply buried targets and not by accident on a hospital. "I would be surprised if there weren't accusations leveled against the use of HPMs," says Goure. "Of course, the alternative, which is 2,000 pounds of high explosives, seems a lot worse to me."

Victorino Matus is an assistant managing editor at The Weekly Standard.

Electromagnetic Pulse Shockwaves As A result of Nuclear Pulse Propulsion

Quote:Throughout the course of history, many strange and unusual ideas have been discussed. Many of the strangest are in the attempt to fly. People have attempted to fly with devices as simple as a few boards with feathers attached to it, balloons filled with hot air, even specially shaped wings that miraculously allow one to fly.
You may have noted that the second and third are a hot air balloon and an airplane. There have been tanks filled with liquid hydrogen and oxygen, both of which are highly explosive, such as in modern chemical spacecraft. There have even been ideas of large cannons to fire a person to the moon or farther, such as Jules Verne theorized.

However, if you were to look at the patent of Dr. Stanislaw Ulam filled by the AEC in 1959, you would see perhaps the strangest idea of them all, to launch a spaceship by launching nuclear bombs out of it's back end repeatedly. The idea was called at that time Project Orion.

I came to study Orion in the year 2001. At first I just looked at existing research, studying its pros and cons. Soon I came to one big problem. There was nothing that I studied that had anything to do with Electromagnetic Pulse shockwaves that would result from the use of so many nuclear bombs.

Electromagnetic Pulse is the affect of nuclear weapons that has a tendency to destroy electronics in a large area. It is caused by radiation ionizing the atoms in a band around the earth approximately 20-30 km high. It can be extremely damaging.

A 1.4 Megaton bomb launched about 400 kilometers above Kansas would destroy most of the unprotected electronics in the entire Continental United States. However, Electromagnetic Pulse remains almost untested for small nuclear bombs.

Long did I study many things to try to determine if Electromagnetic Pulse would have a large enough effect upon the world to have cause to prevent the launch of an Orion spacecraft.

I asked many questions on the Internet relating to this. However, the best response I could get was "EMP is not significant for less than 1 megaton bombs" from the Yahoo Project Orion club. I believed it was significant, but I was largely been unable to find out a way to test my hypothesis.

However, I did get some information, mostly on using a very commonly used and applied physics formula known as the Inverse Squared law, which states that the power of a field or charge or many other things varies inversely squared with it's distance. In order to figure out the many calculations, I built a simulator.

My simulator required a great deal of effort to produce. I had to include issues such as acceleration, figure out where each bomb would be when it exploded, and approximate the damage caused by the Electromagnetic Pulse shockwave.

Having little knowledge on converting nuclear force to distance, I had to rely upon flight figures I scrounged over the Internet, as well as a few other places.

This was not an easy feat. Web sites, books, reports, all did not like to exactly describe an Orion launch, only giving hints as to what it may do. The details are probably classified.

I gave this problem serious consideration, and proceeded to design a simulation. I decided to use the most common Orion I read about, the 4000-ton version. I had a few numbers; such as it used 200 bombs to reach an altitude of 125,000 ft. I was trying to figure out the force that it would take the bombs to accelerate the ship at 20 m/s, and did. Then I tried to find a time where it would reach 125,000 ft in 200 bombs.

However, I discovered that these results were far from optimal. I decided to rework everything I had to find the most optimal Orion launch, provided that I could only change the time between bombs, and ever bomb would provide a force of approximately 80,000,000 Newtons, which corresponds to an initial acceleration of about 20 m/s2, or roughly double that of gravity.

I found that the bombs should be launched in intervals of about 1.1 seconds. In the end with many hours of long work, I came up with the Orion Simulator, which is on the CD that came with this paper. The simulator was based off of Newton's laws of gravity as well as Newton's third law of motion. It is true that Newton's laws of gravity are no longer held to an absolute truth, but they are useful for determining the force of gravity between objects that are not microscopic.

That was all for the physical displacement of Orion. I also had to calculate the damage from the Electromagnetic Pulse. This again was not an easy feat. I took estimations of the power of EMP based off of nuclear test of Starfish Prime during Project Dominic.

My main concern with this was the figures I had were 1.4 thermonuclear megaton bombs. I would be basing my figures off of a twenty-kiloton fission bomb. To attempt to resolve this problem, I first guessed that there was a linear relationship between bomb size and power of Electromagnetic Pulse.

This is probably false, but I don't have any better information. Second of all, I used known figures to guess how powerful. According to the Federation of American Scientists, a 1.45 Megaton bomb in Project Dominic did severe damage to a radius of at least 800 miles when launched at a height of 248 miles.

When converting these into metric, I have a 1.45 Megaton bomb launched from a height of 400 km and affecting a radius of about 1300 km severely. This is not perfect, because these were done on the Pacific islands, where electronics are still to this day not very reliable.

Then I assumed that fission bombs created about the same amount of gamma rays as a thermonuclear bomb, and that about the same amount were ionized and created the electromagnetic pulse shockwaves.

This one was really stretching the truth; in all actuality fission bombs create more radiation, and thus do more damage, than thermonuclear bombs. And lastly, I took no consideration at all of the Earth's magnetic field lines, which can potentially greatly influence the sphere of influence of Electromagnetic Pulse.

I still had a few problems. I needed to make sure that the explosions occurred in a range where nuclear explosions could take place, at a minimum altitude of 30 kilometers.

Finally I proceeded to execute the simulation. I tested in circles around ground zero of one kilometer. I started these figures at one kilometer from ground zero, and continued to the range of about 8000 kilometers.

This is quite a bit farther than is destructive by Electromagnetic Pulse, but this is what I determined to be the maximum area that has even the slightest effect of Electromagnetic Pulse, as it's the maximum area that is in line of sight.

I had it put a guessed value for Electromagnetic Pulse destructiveness. I know that it is not perfect, but it should be close enough for my purposes. I said a number of 100 would be destructive to most systems somewhat, and the higher the number, the more destructiveness would be affected.

In order to calculate the radius of are affected, I needed a few more formulas than could be provided by my previous experience. I tried to look them up, but could not find anything. So I drew a diagram, and used the laws of trigonometry and geometry to calculate these formulas. I have included these formulas as well as the formulas I used to calculate EMP below.

Note that c=distance from the center as determined by arc length, a=altitude, E=electromagnetic damage index, P=power of the bomb, measured in kilotons, D=damage of EMP on a specific area, d=distance between the ground and the point of the explosion of the bomb, is the Earth's Radius, and is equal to , and V is the light of sight from altitude a. Formula 1) is the distance between a point on a circle and a point above it, given the arc length from the closest point to the circle. Formula 2) expresses the linear relationship between bomb size and EMP damage, formula 3) is the inverse squared law of Electromagnetic Power, and formula 4) is the calculations of line of site.

In the end, I determined a radius of 276 kilometers, or about 170 miles, would be affected. The full results are available in the Orion.dat file on the CD . Note that the first number is the distance from ground zero, the second the number of times an Electromagnetic burst damaged the area, even if only minor. The third number is the maximum damage index. The last is the altitude where the maximum damage explosion occurred.

That is a large area. There are not many areas where this would be safe, and probably the best would be the Magnetic North Pole. The Magnetic North Pole is convenient for several reasons, not just Electromagnetic Pulse. Relating to Electromagnetic Pulse is its remoteness and reasonably easy access. While there is a slight chance of ice caps melting, as a whole, it is a better launch site then any other in the world, especially in respect to Electromagnetic Pulse.
Gak bakal mempan dipakai di Indonesia ki. Lha wong masih banyak wilayah Indonesia yang belum terjangkau listrik...hehehehe. Bomb ini berguna buat hajar SG yang semua sistem militernya pakai jaringan. Dan semua orang elektronik freak emoticon-Hammer
Quote:Original Posted By TukangSimulasi
Gak bakal mempan dipakai di Indonesia ki. Lha wong masih banyak wilayah Indonesia yang belum terjangkau listrik...hehehehe. Bomb ini berguna buat hajar SG yang semua sistem militernya pakai jaringan. Dan semua orang elektronik freak emoticon-Hammer

so your conclusion is? is it lethal or non lethal? and why? emoticon-Big Grin
alamat sepi trit model begini mah.. klo yg dibahas lontong semur sekilo baru rame.. emoticon-Ngakak (S)
ai bilang sih non lethal tapi kalo dipake diatas rumah sakit ya jadinya lethal ki.
Quote:Original Posted By cherrybombers

so your conclusion is? is it lethal or non lethal? and why? emoticon-Big Grin
alamat sepi trit model begini mah.. klo yg dibahas lontong semur sekilo baru rame.. emoticon-Ngakak (S)

ehm, saya kurang paham efek gelombang elektromagnetik ke tubuh manusia. Kalau intens mungkin bisa merusak fungsi otak juga (kalau area yang dijatuhi penduduknya punya otak emoticon-Hammer).

Opini bodoh saya, ini berguna untuk melumpuhkan negara yang militernya sangat tergantung pada network (disini kelihatan unggulnya komcot sama semaphore sama sandi asap) dan negara dengan musim ekstrim yang bergantuk pada ac/heater untuk hidup. Buat negara2 dunia ketiga dimana listrik dan kendaraan bermotor adalah kemewahan bom ini gak ada gunanya.
Quote:Original Posted By TukangSimulasi
Gak bakal mempan dipakai di Indonesia ki. Lha wong masih banyak wilayah Indonesia yang belum terjangkau listrik...hehehehe. Bomb ini berguna buat hajar SG yang semua sistem militernya pakai jaringan. Dan semua orang elektronik freak emoticon-Hammer

kyk nya kl pulse nya kuat bsa ngeledakin hp deh.
lumayan, apa lg kl anak alay yg bwa 3 hp, bsa jadi ranjau smua. emoticon-Big Grin

tp kl open war brguna jg buat diledak di tmpat strategis. bsa ngerusak smua data link. pespur lg terbang dijamin rontok. tp kl diledak di ntt ya samimawon.
Quote:Original Posted By toonarm
ai bilang sih non lethal tapi kalo dipake diatas rumah sakit ya jadinya lethal ki.

nah itu dia. semua balik ke terms n condition penggunaannya.. yg ai pengen tau soal traktat ato proliferasi dari penggunaan EMP ini.. itu yg susah..

Quote:Original Posted By TukangSimulasi

ehm, saya kurang paham efek gelombang elektromagnetik ke tubuh manusia. Kalau intens mungkin bisa merusak fungsi otak juga (kalau area yang dijatuhi penduduknya punya otak emoticon-Hammer).

Opini bodoh saya, ini berguna untuk melumpuhkan negara yang militernya sangat tergantung pada network (disini kelihatan unggulnya komcot sama semaphore sama sandi asap) dan negara dengan musim ekstrim yang bergantuk pada ac/heater untuk hidup. Buat negara2 dunia ketiga dimana listrik dan kendaraan bermotor adalah kemewahan bom ini gak ada gunanya.

ada sedikit penjelasan menarik soal EMP effect on human tissue..

Quote:EM radiations with frequency higher than a few Terahertz (infrared, visible, UV, Xray, Gamma ray) have no special effect on electronic circuits. Because of that, a well designed EMP weapon will have maximum energy between a few megahertz and a few hundreds of gigahertz.
The point of EMP weapons is to provoke some current or voltage surge that destroy electronic components. As it's been said, the human body is not an excellent conductor, especially the outer layers of skin (epithelium). This is because the human body is essentially ions dissolved in a viscous liquid, separated by billions of isolating membranes. The consequence is the human body does not conduct high frequencies, and pretty bad low frequencies. As a result, EMP do not provoke voltage surge, but ohmic heating.
The conclusion is, an EMP could kill a human by heat damage, but the "pure" electric damage will be almost unnoticeable. I don't remember where I've read it, but something like 70% of people hit by thunder survive. As long as no strong current goes through the heart, the human body is surprisingly resistant to electrical damage.
(On the other hand, electrocutions are usually followed by ionic poisoning, caused by ions supposed to stay inside cells going out and vice versa, so if you get a shock, you should pay a visit to your doc)

see the bold.. emoticon-Big Grin
Quote:Original Posted By flankerbomber

kyk nya kl pulse nya kuat bsa ngeledakin hp deh.
lumayan, apa lg kl anak alay yg bwa 3 hp, bsa jadi ranjau smua. emoticon-Big Grin

tp kl open war brguna jg sih.
bsa ngerusak smua data link.
pespur lg terbang dijamin rontok.

Masalahnya berapa besar energi yang diperlukan untuk menghasilkan pulse elektromagnetik yang bisa merusak avionik pesawat tempur. Lagian kalau pake nuclear yang membunuh ya radiasinya itu....meledak di atmosfer, bercampur dengan uap air trus turun bersama hujan, alamat amsyong iotu area...
puyeng bacanyaemoticon-Berduka (S)
tanya aja deh, kalo gw punya hape trus tu hape dimatiin, kena EMP, rusak gak?

Quote:Original Posted By cherrybombers

nah itu dia. semua balik ke terms n condition penggunaannya.. yg ai pengen tau soal traktat ato proliferasi dari penggunaan EMP ini.. itu yg susah..

ada sedikit penjelasan menarik soal EMP effect on human tissue..

see the bold.. emoticon-Big Grin

Gimana kalau aki coba naruh tangan aki di microwave open emoticon-Big Grin...ntar ceritain efeknya ya.

Masalahnya kalau di microwave open gelombangnya terfokus ki, kalau ini khan nyebar.
Quote:Original Posted By axelrain
puyeng bacanyaemoticon-Berduka (S)
tanya aja deh, kalo gw punya hape trus tu hape dimatiin, kena EMP, rusak gak?


Coba aja taruh HP situ bentar aja di microwave open om emoticon-Big Grin...ntar kabarin ya rusak apa gak?
Quote:Original Posted By TukangSimulasi

Gimana kalau aki coba naruh tangan aki di microwave open emoticon-Big Grin...ntar ceritain efeknya ya.

Masalahnya kalau di microwave open gelombangnya terfokus ki, kalau ini khan nyebar.

darah nya mendidih dluan.
kl lemak nya byk y melonyot dluan. emoticon-Big Grin

emg ini sama om dgn gelombang microwave oven? yg aii tau microwave kyk glombang radar dh, dipancarin magnetron disebarin kipas dan dipantul2 sm faraday cage. cm pngetahuan nyubi aii.