[Diskusi AAW] Corvettes and OPVs: Offshore Investments 2013

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[Diskusi AAW] Corvettes and OPVs: Offshore Investments 2013
Corvettes and OPVs: Offshore Investments

In assessing the region’s capabilities in the Corvette/Offshore Patrol Vessel (C/OPV) market the most important question is what is the difference between these two platforms, and what makes these two diverse vessel types exceptional?

by Ted Hooten

The question can best be understood by looking at Malaysia. To meet its New Generation Patrol vessel (NGPV) requirement the Royal Malaysian Navy selected the Blohm & Voss MEKO 100 design as the ‘Kedah’ class. They seem to be OPVs at first sight for their armament consists of a 76mm (three-inch) gun and a 30mm (one inch) gun but they feature a sophisticated combat management system, an electro-optical director, a chaff launcher and are equipped to operate surface-to-surface missiles, surface-to-air missiles and an electronic warfare suite. These are not installed but it was recently revealed that Kuala Lumpur now intends adding anti-ship missile systems to them. They are rated in the naval bible, Jane’s Fighting Ships as corvettes and will be joined by DCNS ‘Gowind’ class ships ordered last year from France’s DCNS with the first example to be delivered in 2017. The French Navy operates one as an OPV but the design can be used as a corvette and Malaysia intends operating them in this role.

OPV-type platforms can be used as corvettes for both are generally around the 1,000-2,000 tonne mark but the OPV is more a law-enforcement platform. It is designed to protect a nation’s resources within the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) extending some 200 nautical miles (370 kilometres) from shore and also to assert national sovereignty and law while providing a search and rescue as well as an environmental protection capability with some having a hydrographic survey capability. Compared with a corvette it tends to be slower but with higher endurance often operating a helicopter while some have sophisticated command and communications systems to interact with foreign agencies, but they are generally armed with nothing larger than a 76mm gun. The corvette is a surface combatant usually optimised for Anti-Surface Warfare (ASuW) and featuring surface-to-surface missiles and consequently it has more sophisticated sensors than the OPV with higher speeds for rapid transit or manoeuvres.

The largest OPV operators in Asia are China, India and Japan, which have to secure green or blue water interests, while a number of countries such as Indonesia rely on their surface combatants in the offshore role. This can sometimes ratchet up tension in times of crisis, such as the recent confrontation off Borneo between Malaysia and Indonesia, while the OPV acts as a less threatening platform.


Most of China’s OPVs are operated by

China Maritime Surveillance (CMS) which continues to be expanded and is scheduled to receive another 36 hulls of various sizes. Both the Indian Navy and Coast Guard operate OPVs, the former operating a fleet of six vessels and the latter having about a score of hulls from 1,200 to 2,200 tons and due to receive half-a-dozen Advanced Offshore Patrol Vessels with a displacement of 2,230 tons. There has been a considerable degree of cross-pollination between the services in OPV design and the navy’s latest requirement for Naval Offshore Patrol Vessels (NOPV), the 2,215-ton ‘Saryu’ class, whose first-of-class was commissioned in December 2012, is based on the Coast Guard’s ‘Sankalp’ class.


Japan’s Coast Guard has some 50 OPVs, including the biggest in Asia in the two 5,204-ton ‘Mizuho’ class. Following clashes with the CMS off the Senkaku/Diaoyu islands last year Tokyo is expanding its Coast Guard and will purchase four 1,000-ton OPVs by the end of 2014. Neighbouring South Korea has a Coast Guard which operates four OPVs of some 1,200-tons and is receiving a small expansion of some five vessels from the Hyundai yard including a 3,000-tonne OPV.

South East Asia

Within South East Asia Brunei has three 80-metre (24-feet) ‘Darussalam’ class OPVs, the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency (MMEA) has two ‘Langkawi’ class OPVs, the Philippines Navy operates three ‘Jacinto’ class ‘corvettes’, which are actually OPVs, and has acquired two former US Coast Guard ‘Hamilton’ class High Endurance Cutters, and may acquire a third to meet a long-standing requirement for three OPVs. It is now considering installing anti-ship missiles in these vessels to make them full corvettes. Thailand has requirements for five OPVs of which four would be sophisticated craft, reportedly having the same design as OPVs built for Trinidad and Tobago but sold the Brazil, while one will be a more basic vessel. It operates two ‘Pattani’ class ‘corvettes’ which are also actually OPVs.

Indian Ocean

Around the Indian Ocean Burma operates three ‘sheep in wolves’ clothing, ‘Anawrahta’ class ‘corvettes’ which are actually OPVs, while Bangladesh acquired two former Royal Navy ‘Castle’ class OPVs and the ‘Hamilton’ class cutter USCG Dallas but there is a requirement for three more OPVs. The cutter will be upgraded to a corvette with a combat system, anti-submarine torpedoes and anti-ship missiles. Sri Lanka operates a number of former Indian and US Coast Guard OPVs but might well expand the force. In the Pacific, New Zealand acquired two ‘Protector’ class OPVs which are unusual because they have ice-strengthened bows to operate in Antarctica. Australia has a plan, Project Sea 1180 for a 2,000-tonne Offshore Combat Vessel (OCV) which would meet a variety of roles including acting as an OPV. This $3.1 billion programme is unlikely to be implemented until the first half of the next decade.

The demand for true corvettes has grown steadily in the past couple of decades replacing requirements for Fast Attack Craft (FAC). FACs are small platforms especially vulnerable to air attack because their surveillance radar antenna is relatively low reducing the search area and counter-measures reaction times, they cannot mount a significant air defence system which makes them vulnerable even to helicopter stand-off attack and their lack of compartments means a bomb or missile strike can inflict catastrophic damage. The corvette overcomes most of these problems making them a useful surface combatant with superior radar search area, more compartments and the introduction of damage control while bringing the prospect of better air defence protection. It is also a more versatile platform for it can be used for Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) through the installation of sonars and lightweight torpedo launchers.


It should be noted that not all corvettes have surface-to-surface missiles, and Indonesia’s former East German ‘Parchim Is’, or ‘Kapitan Pattimura’ class, are unusual in being dedicated ASW platforms with hull-mounted sonar, augmented in some ships by variable depth sensors, armed with both anti-submarine torpedoes and mortars. Indonesia augments these 16 ships with seven Dutch-built vessels; three 30-year-old ‘Fatahillahs’, which also feature a strong ASW suite, and the most modern Damen Schelde Naval Shipbuilding (DSNS) ‘Diponegoro’ class which are one of Damen’s Sigma family (Sigma 9113), with their shaped hulls to reduce the radar cross section.

The Sigmas form the keel of a new family of corvettes (also designated ‘light frigates’) to meet the Guided Missile Escort (Perusak Kawal Rudal) 105 requirement which are being designed by DSNS and the domestic yard PT PAL under an August 2010 agreement. Based upon the Sigma 10514, these 2,400-tonne vessels will be optimised for ASW with the first of two scheduled to be laid down this year and to enter service in 2016 but it is unclear how many are required. Priority may have been given to a requirement for three submarines with work starting next year.


Neighbouring Malaysia’s requirements have been mentioned earlier and it should be noted that the Royal Malaysian Navy also operates six corvettes; four former Iraqi ‘Assads’ (as the ‘Laksamana’ class) and two German-built ‘Kasturis’, while Singapore has six ‘Victory’ class ships based upon the Lürssen MGB 62 design but with an exceptionally high mast for its search radar. Nearby Thailand operates seven corvettes of which the five ‘Khamronsin’ and ‘Tapi’ class are ASW vessels. There is no requirement for new vessels with Bangkok more interested in acquiring frigates and upgrading its vessels.


By contrast Vietnam is expanding its corvette fleet steadily from the original four ‘Tarantul’ (‘Project 1241E’) class, with an ASW capability, and two domestically-built ‘Improved Pauks’ (‘Project 12418’) and is acquiring up to ten ‘Improved Tarantuls’ (‘Project 1241.8’) all of which are pure ASuW vessels. In 2011 DSNS revealed they were discussing the sale of four ‘Sigma 10514s’ to Vietnam, of which two would be built domestically Vietnam is also acquiring Russian-built frigates, two of which have been delivered, reflecting the preference of some Asian navies for larger, multi-role platforms capable of projecting power in ‘blue water’ environments. South Korea, for example, which operates 23 ‘Po Hang’ class ASuW/ASW corvettes will replace them with the ‘FF-X’ frigates and the ‘Gumdoksuri’ class fast attack craft for coastal operations in offshore islands, with the first FF-X ship having been delivered in 2012. By contrast Japan has never been interested in corvettes.


However, both China and Taiwan want large surface combatants and corvettes. Last year China’s first two ‘Jiangdao’ (‘Type 056’) class corvettes were launched and will join the fleet this year. They were revealed to be modern vessels similar to the ‘Diponegoro’ class with shaped hulls, but at 1,440-tonnes (compared with 1,692 tonnes) they are slightly smaller. They are reportedly to replace the 40-year-old ‘Jianghu I/I’ (‘Type 053H/H1’) class frigates and the ‘Houxin/Houjian’ (‘Type 037 1G/2’) fast attack craft/patrol craft. These ships are being built by the Hudong-Zhonghua and Huangpu yards, who also built the ‘Jianghus’ and it is reported that ten are at various stages of construction with at least two more on order.

Taiwan, which has previously relied upon a combination of major surface combatants and fast attack craft, has its own corvette programme as ‘Hsun Hai’ (‘Swift Sea’). Revealed in April 2012 the programme envisages ‘stealthy’ corvettes of 900-1,000 tonnes with supersonic surface-to-surface missiles which are reportedly to be introduced to combat the China’s new aircraft carrier, the Liaoning. It will be a domestically-designed and produced vessel with some ASW capability, possibly incorporating weapon and sensor systems from the Taiwanese Navy’s decommissioned ‘Gearing’ class destroyers, its current ‘Knox’ class frigates and ‘Jin Chiang’ class fast attack craft. The requirement is for a dozen vessels with deliveries beginning next year. It is expected that they will be constructed by Lung The Shipbuilding.


There is interest in corvettes around the Indian Ocean. The Indian Navy itself has operated corvettes since the 1960s and originally relied upon Russian designs currently using four ‘Abhay’ (‘Modified Pauk II’) ASW ships, which may be re-engined, and twelve ‘Tarantul I’ or ‘Veer’ class ASuW ships. The first indigenous ships were the ‘Khukris’ (‘Project 25’) which were planned as ASW vessels but were built as ASuW platforms, their only ASW capability being in the helicopter for which there is a deck, and the same applies to the improved versions of the ‘Kora’ (‘Project 25A’) class, the most significant difference being the replacement of first generation SS-N-2 ‘Styx’ surface-to-surface missiles with SS-N-25 ‘Switchblade’.

The latest Indian corvettes are the ‘Project 28’ ships of the ‘Kamorta’ class. Like all Indian corvettes they are intended for deployment in offshore waters but these are multi-role vessels which incorporate ‘stealth’ technology. They also possess a considerable ASW capability with hull-mounted and towed array sonars, helicopter torpedo-launchers and mortars as well as a useful Anti-Air Warfare (AAW) capability through their local-area defence Barak 8 surface-to-air missiles. However, construction of these ships has been unusually protracted with the first-of-class laid down in 2006 but not scheduled for commissioning until the third quarter of 2013. Four ships are currently on order, with the last to be delivered in 2016, and the difficulties and delays encountered in producing this class must put at risk New Delhi’s plans for twelve ships but these may be overtaken by plans for ‘Project 28A’ class ships which might involve a trimaran hull.


Neighbouring Pakistan prefers its surface fleet to consist of a mixture of frigates and fast attack craft while Sri Lanka focuses upon OPVs. However, Bangladesh has incorporated requirements for corvettes in the ambitious defence procurement plan it published in February 2009. Two small, 600 tonne, corvettes or patrol craft are in the plan but China’s separate tender for two corvettes has been accepted and Dhaka is considering a long term plan to order four more corvettes from Turkey.

The choice of corvettes and/or OPVs by Asian navies will clearly be shaped by a raft of factors including cost, theatre of operations and the need to have dedicated craft for the small surface combatant role. It is clear, however, that these vessels will continue to be found in Asian naval inventories well into the decade.

[Diskusi AAW] Corvettes and OPVs: Offshore Investments 2013
Spoiler for 1:

Spoiler for kcr:

Spoiler for sigma:

TNI AL masih kurang dalam AAW.emoticon-Berduka (S)
adakah saran buat TNI AL kita ini??
Indonesian Navy
6 Ahmad Yani (Ne. Van Speijk)
1 ordered SIGMA 10514-class;2400 tonne, first ship built by Damen in
$220 mil., delivery in 2017 and up to 19 vessels built locally

3 Fatahillah
4 Diponegoro/Sigma class; final ship transferred in March 2009
16Pattimura/Parchim class; re-engined in 2005
3Purchase agreed F2000 Nakhoda Ragham;BAE Systems design.

2 Cakra/Type 209/1300;Daewoo refurbishment in ROK underway
3 OrderedType 209/1200; ROKN Chang Bo design, deal announced Dec. 2011
with two boats built in Korea the third by PT Pal inSurabaya

Light Forces
4Dagger-class Missile FAC; built inKorea
4 Kakap class PB (PB57)
4 Andau class FAC (FPB57)
4 Todak class PB57; two converted to carry C802 ASuMs
8 Sibaru class (ex-Aus.Attack-class)
13 Boa class patrol boats

2 Pulau Rengat(Tripartite)
9 Pulau Rote (GDRKondor II-class)

5 Makassar LPD;third and the firstlocally built vessel commissioned Nov 2009, the last Banda Aceh handed over in March 2011
6 Teluk Semangka;Tacomatype LSTH
12 Teluk Gelimanuk LSM (GDR Frosch-class)
3 Kupang-class LCU

Replenishment and Support
1 Arun oiler (UKGreen Rover)
1 Sorong Replenishment

1 Tanjung Dr Soeharso(ex Dalpele); transport hospital ship
6 Troop transportsconverted from liners and ferries: KRI Tanjung Oisina, Tanjung Nusanive, Tanjung Fatagar, Karang Pilang,
Karang Tekok, Karang Banteng

Notes:Indonesia has a requirement for around 20 frigates largely based on Damen’s SIGMA 10514 design and built by PT Pal. MoD say that there are plans to field 10-12 submarines in 2024. New submarine base opened in Palu, centralSulawesiin April 2013.Indonesiahas agreed to buy three BAE Systems Nakhoda Ragam F2000 design frigates fromBruneifollowing a November MoU signed by the two countries and a subsequent meeting between defence ministers. The purchase was reported still to be in the planning stage in January.

Royal Malaysian Navy
2 Lekiu-class; BAE Systems F2000 design

4 Laksamana class
6 Kedah-class (Meko 100 RMN); last Kedah commissioned on Nov 28th 2010
2 Katsuri (Type FS 1500);SLEP began in 2009
6 Ordered Next-Generation Patrol Vessels; Gowind class ships from DCNS

Light Forces
4 Handalan Missile FAC
4 Perdana Missile FAC
6 Jerong Gun FAC
17 CB90

2 Scorpene Class; based at Sepanggar Naval base, training and support from DCI-NAFCO

4 Mahamiru (Lerici)Minehunters

Amphibious and Support
1 TLDM Bunga MasLimaAuxiliary
1 Gunga Mas Lima; helicopter capable support ship
2 Sri Indera Sakti Class; Combat Support Ship

Notes: Second batch of Lekiu class frigates reportedly planned, leading to eventual fleet of 6. Expansion of the submarine fleet is also reportedly under consideration. Reports that RMN considering acquiring ex-US FFG-7 and Whidbey Island-class LSD ga tw kenapa negara satu ini kadang songgong sekali diperbatasan.emoticon-Gila

KCR kita pada ga diperhatiin sama media luaremoticon-Big Grin padahal sudah beranak pinak. tau2 ntar da puluhanemoticon-Big Grinemoticon-Big Grinemoticon-Big Grin

Bersahabat baik dengan negara tetangga
Dan menjadi tetangga yang baik

Sampai keseluruhan tahapan MEF berjalan lancar
Yg plg ngenes itu ya VS.Major combatant badan gambot + slow tp cuma pake Simbad.emoticon-Berduka (S)
ane malah kepikiran mending dibanyakin fast attack craft (lebih kecil dari corvette), trus dikasih 4 biji AShM, torpedo, 76mm gun.. Murah, lethal, expendable emoticon-Big Grin
OSI Maritime Systems Joins Canadian Prime Minister’s Business Delegation to Malaysia
Monday, October 14, 2013 by OSI Maritime Systems

On 6 October 2013, OSI Maritime Systems president and CEO Ken Kirkpatrick, as a member of Prime Minister Stephen Harper's Canadian business delegation to Malaysia, participated in a ceremony recognising recent Canadian-Malaysian business agreements.

The Canadian prime minister and the Malaysian Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Razak were present as Mr. Kirkpatrick and managing director of Boustead Naval Shipyard, Malaysia, Y. Bhg. Tan Sri Dato' Seri Ahmad Ramli Mohd Nor, acknowledged the agreement between OSI and BNS.

According to the terms of the agreement, OSI will deliver six integrated navigation and tactical systems (INTS) to Boustead Naval Shipyard (BNS) as part of the Ministry of Defence's Littoral Combat Ship Program. Six Gowind-class corvettes are being built by BNS for the Royal Malaysian Navy.

"It is an honour to be part of an event that demonstrates Canada's accomplishments in the international marketplace and the strong relationship it has with Malaysia," said Mr. Kirkpatrick.

"It reflects positively on OSI, as a leader in delivering naval integrated navigation and bridge systems as well as a Canadian company successfully operating in South-East Asia. The region is undertaking a significant modernisation of their naval capabilities, selecting best-of-breed technologies in the process. To date, OSI counts some of region's most modern navies as customers including Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore."

OSI's INTS is a fully scalable, IMO and NATO STANAG 4564 compliant integrated Bridge System (IBS). Centering around OSI's ECPINS and integrating selected radars and navigation sensors, INTS provides a comprehensive and cost-effective IBS, suitable for new builds or existing platform retrofits.

da mulai jalan nih gowindnyaemoticon-televisi
[Diskusi AAW] Corvettes and OPVs: Offshore Investments 2013

data lengkapnya OSI
[URL="osi PDF"][/URL]
PKR sigma 2017
LCS gowind 2018

taon sgitu brati 2 kapal ini akan punya wujudnya n bakal dibandingkan kemampuannya.bila diliat dari persenjataan yg ditanam di SIGMA bakal mengusung kearah AAW.bila dikira kira nih,PKR ma gowind speknya unggul yg mana sih? walaupun 2 kapal itu kategorinya beda...... soalnya 2 kapal ini ujung tombak kapal baru TNI AL sama RMN.

Spoiler for sigma:

Spoiler for gowind:
Itu MEKO malaysia udah fully armed blom? Klo itu blm dipersenjatai tp udah maenan gowind lucu jg kesannya
inti artikelnya, dimana negara2 besar spt india, china dan jepang sedang memperbesar armada OPVnya (dengan senjata maksimal 76mm) untuk peran penegakan hukum dan presence di ZEE, negara2 asia tenggara malah rame2 mengaku OPVnya sbagai korvet dan kalau bisa mempersenjatainya dengan misil sehingga berubah menjadi korvet..

OPV, lebih sopan ketika diandalkan untuk patroli...

bagus dengan missil jrang jangkaunya bisa jauh...selain itu juga bisa buat defenceyg kuat...
kok judulnya ada kata AAW gak cocok sama isinya ? emoticon-Amazed

kita kan lagi ngembangin kcr buat patroli om, semua kembali ke doktrin masing2
gimana kalo modifikasi dari komar klas kayaknya lumayan juga plus motor electric vessel

Udah ada KR-40 malah mau balik make desain kapal buluk jadul bau kentut jaman Soviet.emoticon-Hammer2


kayanya klo saya lebih milih yg murni korvetemoticon-Embarrassment lebih punya otot klo suatu saat ada eskalasi meningkat. untuk urusan patroli bisa dipakai desain yg PC 43.

Fregat SIGMA Tugas buat AAW,fleet protection.
Korvet SIGMA First Line
PC 43 buat patroli pencuri ikan

cuman yah gitu di berita diatas,diakui media luar klo AAW TNI AL minim.... mungkin bisa ditutupi wkt PKR datang. aslinya klo mau itu LPD,LST minim dipersenjatai CIWS harusnya.
sigma gatot dan nachkoda gatot jadi backboneemoticon-Nohope

definisi AAW apa ? emoticon-Embarrassment

AYA AYA WAE om emoticon-Ngakak

Memang mslh plg mendasar ya air defense modern dgn kehadiran ciws gun-missile ya sangat minim hmpir di smua KRI IMHO.
Dimulai dr LPD yg segera hrs dipasang baik sekelas goalkeepr + atleast 2x sadral, lalu Sigma yg sbnrnya bisa n perlu ditambah se ekor GK ato mengganti tetral menjadi sadral spy saturasi rudal lbh byk in case didatengin AShM musuh. Entah ekonomis ato tidak, tp sy rasa VS pun perlu ganti simbad dgn radar-controlled (2 units) sadral dan GK di atas hangar heli yg skarang. Blom lg parchim yg jumlahnya segambreng. Yah setidaknya basic needs spt ini hrs disiapin lah klo mnurut ane
Beberapa kapal besar sebagai komando di suport puluhan kcr pkr dg rudal yang bagus. Indonesia akan seperti sarang semut merah.