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All about Grammar & Tenses - The correct way to say/use .... ask it here !!
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All about Grammar & Tenses - The correct way to say/use .... ask it here !!

Well, Helloooo ^^

I've noticed some mistranslation or misused words, phrases, etc here and there. And instead of posting it somewhere at the available threads to avoid the chance of having it lost or forgotten, I just thought it would be great if it had its own thread. I hope it's OK with you, Mod emoticon-Smilie

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OK, I know sometimes we translate literally from Indo to English. I know I did, well I do...sometimes emoticon-Wink So here are the correct way to say some in English:

-Thanks before = emoticon-thumbdown
-Thanks in advance, thanks beforehand = emoticon-thumbsup:
*
-Beside of that = emoticon-thumbdown
-Besides = emoticon-thumbsup:
*
-Worthed = emoticon-thumbdown
-Worth it = emoticon-thumbsup:

Using "Worth" in a sentence:
-It is worth more than a penny = emoticon-thumbsup:
-That thing is not worth doing = emoticon-thumbsup:
-It worths more than a penny = emoticon-thumbdown
*
Here's funny one and I still can't believe people still use it. emoticon-Wink

A: Thank you.
B: Come back, same-same = emoticon-thumbdown

A: Thank you
B: You're welcome, no problem, don't mention it, don't worry about it = emoticon-thumbsup:
*
A friend of mine said this a while back:

I'm going to leave too long for me to tell you when I will be home.

Bemused at first, then finally understood what he meant. So, the best way:

I'm going to leave indefinitely
*
-I'm going walking-walking at the beach = emoticon-thumbdown
-I'm taking a stroll along the beach = emoticon-thumbsup:
*
-He ran like he was chased by a ghost = emoticon-thumbdown
-He ran as if he was chased by a ghost = emoticon-thumbsup:

How to use Like? Don't use it as a conjunction. Usually Like is followed by an object.
E.g. He looks like you.
*
-Do you want to eat outside? = emoticon-thumbdown
-Do you want to eat out? = emoticon-thumbsup:

#1: Loose for lose
emoticon-thumbdown I always loose the product key.
emoticon-thumbsup: I always lose the product key.

#2: It's for its (or god forbid, its'emoticon-Wink
emoticon-thumbdown Download the HTA, along with it's readme file.
emoticon-thumbsup: Download the HTA, along with its readme file.

emoticon-thumbdown The laptop is overheating and its making that funny noise again.
emoticon-thumbsup: The laptop is overheating and it's making that funny noise again.

#3: They're for their for there
emoticon-thumbdown The managers are in they're weekly planning meeting.
emoticon-thumbsup: The managers are in their weekly planning meeting.

emoticon-thumbdown The techs have to check there cell phones at the door, and their not happy about it.
emoticon-thumbsup: The techs have to check their cell phones at the door, and they're not happy about it.

#4: i.e. for e.g.
emoticon-thumbdown Use an anti-spyware program (i.e., Ad-Aware).
emoticon-thumbsup: Use an anti-spyware program (e.g., Ad-Aware).
Note:
The term i.e. means "that is"; e.g. means "for example". And a comma follows both of them.


#5: Effect for affect
emoticon-thumbdown The outage shouldn't effect any users during work hours.
emoticon-thumbsup: The outage shouldn't affect any users during work hours.
emoticon-thumbsup: The outage shouldn't have any effect on users.
emoticon-thumbsup: We will effect several changes during the downtime.

Note:
Impact is not a verb. Purists, at least, beg you to use affect instead.

emoticon-thumbdown The outage shouldn't impact any users during work hours.
emoticon-thumbsup: The outage shouldn't affect any users during work hours.
emoticon-thumbsup: The outage should have no impact on users during work hours.

#6: You're for your
emoticon-thumbdown Remember to defrag you're machine on a regular basis.
emoticon-thumbsup: Remember to defrag your machine on a regular basis.

emoticon-thumbdown Your right about the changes.
emoticon-thumbsup: You're right about the changes.

#7: Different than for different from
emoticon-thumbdown This setup is different than the one at the main office.
emoticon-thumbsup: This setup is different from the one at the main office.
emoticon-thumbsup: This setup is better than the one at the main office.

#8 Lay for lie
emoticon-thumbdown I got dizzy and had to lay down.
emoticon-thumbsup: I got dizzy and had to lie down.
emoticon-thumbsup: Just lay those books over there.

#9: Then for than
emoticon-thumbdown The accounting department had more problems then we did.
emoticon-thumbsup: The accounting department had more problems than we did.

Note:
Here's a sub-peeve. When a sentence construction begins with If, you don't need a then. Then is implicit, so it's superfluous and wordy.

emoticon-thumbdown If you can't get Windows to boot, then you'll need to call Ted.
emoticon-thumbsup: If you can't get Windows to boot, you'll need to call Ted.

#10: Could of, would of for could have, would have
emoticon-thumbdown I could of installed that app by mistake.
emoticon-thumbsup: I could have installed that app by mistake.

emoticon-thumbdown I would of sent you a meeting notice, but you were out of town.
emoticon-thumbsup: I would have sent you a meeting notice, but you were out of town.

#11 Entitle for deserve

emoticon-thumbdown He did a lot of bad things in the past. He is entitled to have bad karma.
emoticon-thumbsup: He did a lot of bad things in the past. He deserves bad karma.

Entitle is mostly used to furnish with a right or claim to something/someone, mostly in a good way.
emoticon-thumbsup: The coupon entitles the bearer to a 25 percent savings.

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I remember Ross had an argument with the other "Friends" gang about WHO, WHOM, and WHOSE.

WHO is used to ask which person does an action.
E.g. Who is going to pay for it?

WHOM is used to ask which person receives an action.
E.g. Whom did he blame for the loss?

WHOSE is used to ask which person something belongs to.
E.g. Whose Ipod is this?

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English words with disputed usage: (It means they are still debatable, and most of them are not even Standard English but widely used in public.)

A very intriguing question from Waffen-SS:

Comprise, are/is comprised of, constitute, consist of
.

are/is comprised of is still debatable. My suggestion is NOT using it at all.

Comprise ->
1. to include especially within a particular scope;
2. to be made up of;
3. compose, constitute

Consist ->
1. lie, reside (used with in);
2. a. exist, be; b. to be capable of existing;
3. to be compsed or made up (used with of);
4. to be consistent

The programme comprises two short plays. = emoticon-thumbsup:
The programme consisted of two short plays. = emoticon-thumbsup:
The club house constitutes more than 70% of the residents = emoticon-thumbsup:

Rooms comprise a house = disputed usage
A house is comprised of rooms = disputed usage
*

Ain't Originally a contraction of "am not", this word is widely used as a replacement for "aren't", "isn't", "haven't" and "hasn't". It is not a Standard English. Only use it for informal conversation or writings.
*

Alright An alternative to "all right" that some consider illiterate but others allow.
*

GOT for Has/Have

A: What kind of shirt do you got there?
B: I got a black shirt
= Disputed usage, widely used.

A: What kind of shirt do you have there?
B: I have a black shirt.
= emoticon-thumbsup:
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Not one of those how to say/use. Just several useful tips to improve your writing skill.

NON-FICTION

#1 Start with a topic. Brainstorming is always a good way to start. Simply make a list of topics you would like to write on a piece of paper.

#2 Please, and by all means, do some research on each of them. Try to gather enough information before you start doing the first draft.

#3 People often make mistakes by squishing in every single word to the essay as an attempt to make it look longer, and that includes rambling about “out of the topic” materials. Just simply focus on one topic. If you think it is too short, move on to the next one. If it’s too broad, vague, then try to get more specific topic.

#4 Begin to write your first draft of the topic of your choice. It’s OK to be messy at first. That’s why we call it, first draft.

#5 Every essay starts with an introduction, contents, and conclusion. Don’t leave your readers hanging by not including the conclusion. One important thing when it comes about writing non-fiction essay, don’t leave your readers with more questions for you to answer.

#6 Check your first draft. Do more research if it’s necessary and begin composing your second draft, third, and so on until you think you are comfortable enough to write your final essay. Remember to always check for misspelled, grammar errors, etc.

#7 Begin typing your final essay.

#8 Voila! You are done!


FICTION

It follows the same pattern, but Fiction has more requirements, such as character development, outtakes, POV, plot, dialogues, setting, and of course…your imagination. Pay attention to the rules as well.

For examples:
-Italic in fiction/novels is to indicate character’s thought process.

-Quotation mark is for dialogues

-And many more.


*Tips:

-Avoid using many who, which, etc.

-Try not to use the same word in one sentence or a paragraph over and over.
Good: "Are you crazy?!" He yelled. I couldn't believe he just bellowed at me.
Bad: "Are you crazy?!" He yelled. I couldn't believe he just yelled at me.

-Try to condense instead of starting a new sentence each time unless you want to use it for a dramatic purpose.
Good: I didn't go to school that day because I was sick.
Bad: I didn't go to school that day. I was sick.

-Lastly, be careful in using dot (.) in your sentence or paragraph. It could be misleading. I think it's better if we just avoid using (......) unless you know how to use it correctly. I know stopping a habit can be pain in the a**, I tend to use it in the wrong context as well (*guilty*)
Good: "He is a ... killer." --> Ellipsis (...) is used to indicate a pause.
Bad: Hello, my name is John........I am a student....... ---> It looks like a fill-in-the-blank, ey?


Generally, Essay should be double-spaced, one inch margins, 10-12 Times New Roman or Arial. Unless, your teacher, or whoever wants it gives you specific instruction.
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Hope it's useful.

Feel free to add more. Or ask emoticon-Smilie

Thank you for the contribution! (sneepeur, bhre_z, ritzhi)
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[TUTORIAL] All About Grammars & Tenses

Sentences

Sentences are made of two parts: the subject and the predicate.

The subject is the person or thing that acts or is described in the sentence. The predicate, on the other hand, is that action or description.
Complete sentences need both the subject and the predicate.


Clauses

Sentences can be broken down into clauses.

For example: The boy is going to the school, and he is going to eat there.

This is a complete sentence composed of two clauses. There are mainly two types of clauses: independent clauses and subordinate clauses.

Independent clauses act as complete sentences, while subordinate clauses cannot stand alone and need another clause to complete their meaning. For example:

Independent clause example: The boy went to the school.
Subordinate clause example: After the boy went to the school…


Phrases

A group of two or more grammatically linked words that do not have subject and predicate is a phrase.

Example of a complete sentence: The girl is at home, and tomorrow she is going to the amusement park.
Example of a clause: The girl is at home
Example of a phrase: The girl

You can see that “the girl” is a phrase located in the first clause of the complete sentence above.

Phrases act like parts of speech inside clauses. That is, they can act as nouns, adjectives, adverbs and so on.


Parts of Speech

A word is a “part of speech” only when it is used in a sentence. The function the word serves in a sentence is what makes it whatever part of speech it is.

For example, the word “run” can be used as more than one part of speech:.

Sammy hit a home run.

Run is a noun, direct object of hit.

You mustn’t run near the swimming pool.

Run is a verb, part of the verb phrase must (not) run.

Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech: the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the verb, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection. We are going to cover them individually below.


Nouns

A noun is a word used to describe a person, place, thing, event, idea, and so on. Nouns represent one of the main elements of sentences, along with verbs, adjectives, prepositions and articles.

Nouns usually function as subjects or objects within sentences, although they can also act as adjectives and adverbs.

Here is a list with the different types of nouns:

1. Proper nouns

Used to describe a unique person or thing, proper nouns always start with a capital letter. Examples include Mary, India, and Manchester United.

2. Common nouns

Common nouns are used to describe persons or things in general. Examples include girl, country, and team

3. Concrete nouns

Nouns that can be perceived through the five senses are called concrete nouns. Examples include ball, rainbow and melody.

4. Abstract nouns

Nouns that cannot be perceived through the five senses are called abstract nouns. Examples include love, courage, and childhood.

5. Countable nouns

Countable nouns can be counted. They also have both a singular and a plural form. Examples include toys, children and books.

6. Non-countable nouns

These nouns (usually) can not be counted, and they don’t have a plural form. Examples include sympathy, laughter and oxygen.

7. Collective nouns

Collective nouns are used to describe groups of things. Examples include flock, committee and murder.


Plural Form of Nouns

The English language has both regular and irregular plural forms of nouns. The most common case is when you need to add -s to the noun. For example one car and two cars.

The other two cases of the regular plural form are:

1. nouns that end with s, x, ch or sh, where you add -es (e.g., one box, two boxes)
2. nouns that end with consonant + y, where you change the y with i and add -es (e.g., one enemy, two enemies)

On the irregular plural form of nouns there are basically eight cases:

1. nouns that end with -o, where you add -es (e.g., one potato, two potatoes)
2. nouns ending with -is, where you change -is to -es (e.g., one crisis, two crises)
3. nouns ending with -f, where you change -f to -v and add -es (e.g., one wolf, two wolves)
4. nouns ending with -fe, where you change -f to -v and add -s (e.g., one life, two lives)
5. nouns ending with -us, where you change -us to -i (e.g., one fungus, two fungi)
6. nouns that contain -oo, change -oo to -ee (e.g., one foot, two feet)
7. nouns that end with -on, where you change -on with -a (e.g., phenomenon, phenomena)
8. nouns that don’t change (e.g., sheep, offspring, series)

It might appear overwhelming, but after using these nouns a couple of times you will be able to memorize their plural form easily.


Pronouns

Pronouns are used to replace nouns within sentences, making them less repetitive and mechanic. For example, saying “Mary didn’t go to school because Mary was sick” doesn’t sound very good. Instead, if you say “Mary didn’t go to school because she was sick” it will make the sentence flow better.

There are several types of pronouns, below you will find the most common ones:

1. Subjective personal pronouns. As the name implies, subjective pronouns act as subjects within sentences. They are: I, you, he, she, we, they, and it.

Example: I am going to the bank while he is going to the market.

2. Objective personal pronouns. These pronouns act as the object of verbs within sentences. They are: me, you, him, her, us, them and it.

Example: The ball was going to hit me in the face.

3. Possessive personal pronouns. These pronouns are used to indicate possession, and they are placed after the object in question (as opposed to possessive adjectives like my and your, which are placed before the object). They are: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs and its.

Example of possessive adjective: This is my car.
Example of possessive pronoun: This car is mine.

4. Reflexive pronouns. This special class of pronouns is used when the object is the same as the subject on the sentence. They are myself, yourself, himself, herself, ourselves, themselves and itself.

Example: I managed to cut myself in the kitchen.

5. Interrogative pronouns. As you probably guessed these pronouns are used to ask questions. They are what, which, who, whom and whose.

Example: What are the odds?

6. Demonstrative pronouns. These pronouns are used to indicate a noun and distinguish it from other entities. Notice that demonstrative pronouns replace the noun (while demonstrative determiners modify them). They are: this, that, these, those.

Example of a demonstrative determiner: This house is ugly.
Example of a demonstrative pronoun: This is the right one.

7. Indefinite pronouns. As the name implies, indefinite pronouns do not refer to a specific thing, place or person. There are many of them, including anyone, anywhere, everyone, none, someone and so on.

Example: Everyone is going to the party.


Adjectives

An adjective is a word that describes a noun. There are two kinds: attributive and predicative.

An adjective is used attributively when it stands next to a noun and describes it.

For example: The black cat climbed a tree.

Notice that the verb participle forms can be used as adjectives:

The man felt a paralyzing fear.
Flavored oatmeal tastes better than plain oatmeal.

The usual place of the adjective in English is in front of the noun. You can have a whole string of adjectives if you like: The tall thin evil-looking cowboy roped the short, fat, inoffensive calf.

Sometimes, for rhetorical or poetic effect, the adjective can come after the noun:
Sarah Plain and Tall (book title)
This is the forest primeval.

An adjective is used predicatively when a verb separates it from the noun or pronoun it describes:
The umpire was wrong.
The crowd was furious.
She seems tired today.
This soup tastes bad.
The dog’s coat feels smooth.

The verbs that can be completed by predicate adjectives are called being verbs or copulative verbs. They include all the forms of to be and sensing verbs like seem, feel, and taste.
Adjective Classifications

* qualitative: good, bad, happy, blue, French
* possessive: my, thy, his, her, its, our, your, their
* relative and interrogative: which, what, whatever, etc.
* numeral: one, two, second, single, etc.
* indefinite: some, any, much, few, every, etc.
* demonstrative: this, that, the, a (an), such

The demonstrative adjectives the and a (an) are so important in English that they have a special name: articles. They are discussed separately below.


Articles

The words a, an, and the are generally called articles and sometimes classed as a separate part of speech. In function, however, they can be grouped with the demonstrative adjectives that are used to point things out rather than describe them.

Definite Article
The is called the definite article because it points out a particular object or class.
This is the book I was talking about.
The dodo bird is extinct.

Indefinite Article
A is called the indefinite article because it points out an object, but not any particular specimen.
a book, a dog, a lawn mower

The indefinite article has two forms:
A is used before words beginning with a consonant sound or an aspirated h:
a car, a lamb, a hope, a habit, a hotel

An is used before words beginning with a vowel sound:
an ape, an image, an untruth, an honorable man
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Verbs

English has three kinds of Verbs: transitive, intransitive, and incomplete.

1. Transitive Verbs
A verb is transitive when the action is carried across to a receiver:

The farmer grows potatoes. Elvis sang ballads.

The receiver is called the direct object. It answers the question “What?” or “Whom? after the verb. Grows what? Potatoes. Sang what? Ballads.

2. Intransitive Verbs
A verb is intransitive when the action stays with the verb. It is not carried across to a receiver:

Corn grows. Elvis sang.
Adding a prepositional phrase to modify the verb does not change the fact that the action remains with the subject:
Corn grows in the fields. Elvis sang all over the world.

Both transitive and intransitive verbs are action verbs.

3. Incomplete Verbs
There are three types of incomplete verbs:

i. being verbs – also called linking or copulative verbs
to be, seem, become, taste, smell, sound, feel

Tip: Some of these verbs can also be used transitively. If in doubt, substitute a form of to be for the verb. If the sentence still makes sense, the verb is being used as a copulative verb:

He feels depressed. He is depressed.
He feels the wall. He is the wall.

ii. auxiliary verbs – also called helping verbs
be, have, shall, will, do, and may.
He could have gone earlier.

iii. semi-auxiliary verbs
must, can, ought, dare, need.
You must not go. You dare not go.



Verbs Voice

English verbs are said to have two voices: active and passive.

Active Voice: the subject of the sentence performs the action:

His son catches fly balls. Creative children often dream in class.

Note: Verbs in the active voice may be either transitive or intransitive.

Passive Voice: the subject receives the action:

The ball was caught by the first baseman.
The duty is performed by the new recruits.
The dough was beaten by the mixer.
The mailman was bitten by the dog.

Only transitive verbs can be used in the passive voice. What would be the direct object of the verb in the active voice becomes the subject of the verb in the passive voice:

Active voice: The dog bit the mailman. “bit” is a transitive verb. The receiver/direct object is “mailman.”

Passive voice: The mailman was bitten by the dog. “bit” is now in the passive voice. The “receiver” has become the subject of the verb.

A passive verb in either present or past tense will always have two parts: some form of the verb to be (am, is, are, was, were), and a past participle (verb form ending in -ed, -en, or any form used with have when forming a perfect tense).

Note: The mere presence of the verb to be does not indicate that a verb is in the passive voice. The test of a verb in the passive voice is the two-part question:

Is the subject performing the action of the verb or is the subject receiving the action of the verb?

If the subject is receiving the action, then the verb is in passive voice.

Sometimes the passive voice is the best way to express a thought. Used carelessly, however, passive voice can produce a ponderous, inexact writing style.


Verbs Mood

English verbs have four moods: indicative, imperative, subjunctive, and infinitive.

Mood is the form of the verb that shows the mode or manner in which a thought is expressed.

1. Indicative Mood: expresses an assertion, denial, or question:

Little Rock is the capital of Arkansas.
Ostriches cannot fly.
Have you finished your homework?

2. Imperative Mood: expresses command, prohibition, entreaty, or advice:

Don’t smoke in this building.
Be careful!
Don’t drown that puppy!

3. Subjunctive Mood: expresses doubt or something contrary to fact.

Modern English speakers use indicative mood most of the time, resorting to a kind of “mixed subjunctive” that makes use of helping verbs:

If I should see him, I will tell him.

Americans are more likely to say:

If I see him, I will tell him.

The verb may can be used to express a wish:

May you have many more birthdays.
May you live long and prosper.

The verb were can also indicate the use of the subjunctive:

If I were you, I wouldn’t keep driving on those tires.
If he were governor, we’d be in better fiscal shape.

4. Infinitive Mood: expresses an action or state without reference to any subject. It can be the source of sentence fragments when the writer mistakenly thinks the infinitive form is a fully-functioning verb.

When we speak of the English infinitive, we usually mean the basic form of the verb with “to” in front of it: to go, to sing, to walk, to speak.

Verbs said to be in the infinitive mood can include participle forms ending in -ed and -ing. Verbs in the infinitive mood are not being used as verbs, but as other parts of speech:

To err is human; to forgive, divine. Here, to err and to forgive are used as nouns.

He is a man to be admired. Here, to be admired is an adjective, the equivalent of admirable. It describes the noun man.

He came to see you. Here, to see you is used as an adverb to tell why he came.


Verbs Tense

Modern English has six tenses, each of which has a corresponding continuous tense.

The first three tenses, present, past, and future, present few problems. Only third person singular in the present tense differs in form:

Present tense of regular (weak) verbs:

Today I walk. Today he walks.

Yesterday I walked.

Tomorrow I shall/will walk.

The dwindling class of irregular (strong) verbs must be learned individually.

Today I go. Today he goes.

Yesterday I went.

Tomorrow I shall/will go.

The other three tenses, perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect, are formed with the helping verbs have, has, and had.

perfect: used to express an event that has just finished, and to describe an event which, although in the past, has effects that continue into the present.

Queen Elizabeth has reigned for 56 years.

pluperfect (past perfect): used to express an event that took place before another action, also in the past.

I had driven all the way to Oklahoma when I realized my mistake.

future perfect: used to express an event that will have taken place at some time in the future.

As of February 26, I shall have been in this job six years.

For complete conjugation tables of weak and strong English verbs, see the Wikipedia article.


Adverbs

Adverbs are used to describe or modify a verb, adjective, clause, or another adverb. Basically, they modify everything except nouns and pronouns (which are modified by adjectives).

Example of an adverb modifying a verb: He was running fast. (fast modifies running)

Example of an adverb modifying an adjective: She took a very small piece of the cake. (very modifies small)

Example of an adverb modifying a sentence: Strangely, the man left the room. (strangely modifies the whole sentence)

Usually adverbs answer to the questions “When?” (adverbs of time), “Where?” (adverbs of place), and “How?” (adverbs of manner).

Adverbs can also be used to connect clauses and sentences (in this case they are called conjunctive adverbs).

For example: It was dark. Therefore, we needed the torch. (therefore connects the two sentences)



Prepositions

Prepositions are used to link nouns and pronouns to other words within a sentence. The words linked to are called objects.

Usually prepositions show a spatial or temporal relationship between the noun and the object, like in the example below:

The cat is under the table.

Cat is the noun. Under is the preposition. Table is the object.

Here is a list with the most common prepositions: about, above, after, among, around, along, at, before, behind, beneath, beside, between, by, down, from, in, into, like, near, of, off, on, out, over, through, to, up, upon, under, and with.

Notice that you can also have a prepositional phrase, which is formed by the preposition and its object. A preposition phrase can function as adverb, adjective or noun. For example:

The dog was running under the rain.

The prepositional phrase “under the rain” acts as an adverb, specifying where the dog was running.
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Conjunctions

A conjunction joins words and groups of words.

There are two classes of conjunction: co-ordinate or coordinating and subordinate or subordinating.

Co-ordinate conjunctions: and, but, either…or, neither…nor.

Subordinate conjunctions: that, as, after, before, since, when, where, unless, if.

Mother and Father are driving me to New Orleans. (and is a coordinate conjunction joining words of equal significance in the sentence.

I painted the walls but Jack painted the woodwork. (but is a coordinate conjunction joining clauses of equal significance in the sentence. Either clause could stand alone as a sentence.)

Since you can’t get away, we’ll go without you.
(Since is a subordinate conjunction joining a less important thought to a more important thought. The main clause, we’ll go without you, can stand alone as a complete thought. The subordinate clause, Since you can’t get away, is an incomplete thought. It is dependent upon the main clause for meaning.)

Note: The relative pronouns who, whom, which, and that are used in the same way that subordinate conjunctions are. The difference is that the relative pronouns serve three purposes at once:

1) they stand for a noun in the main clause
2) they connect the clauses
3) they serve as a subject or object word in the subordinate clause:

He is the man who invented the hula hoop. (who stands for man and is the subject of invented)

Charles is the boy whom the other children tease. (whom stands for boy and is the object of tease)

Give me the piece of string that is waxed. (that stands for string and is the subject of is waxed)

There goes the horse which won the Derby. (which refers to horse and is the subject of won)

The possessive adjective whose can also be used to join clauses:
That’s the bird whose plumage I admire. (whose refers to bird and describes plumage)



Interjections

Interjection comes from from a Latin word that means “throw between.” It’s a word or phrase that is thrown into a sentence to express an emotion:

Goodness, how you’ve grown!
Darn, I forgot my lunch!
Alas, will he never return?

All the impolite expressions that we call expletives are interjections.

Strictly speaking, an interjection is not a part of speech. It serves no grammatical function but is rather “a noisy utterance like the cry of an animal” (F.J. Rahtz). Interjections express feeling or emotion, not thought and have been called “the miserable refuge of the speechless.”

If you’ve ever stood lunch duty on a high school campus, you know just how vapid conversation can be when larded with meaningless interjections.



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IF-Clause / Conditional Sentence


1. The Zero Conditional (Type 0)
The zero conditional is a structure used for talking about general truths, or scientific facts -- things which always happen under certain conditions.

A zero conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an "if" clause and a main clause (note that most zero conditional sentences will mean the same thing if "when" is used instead of "if"). For example:
If the "if" clause comes first, a comma is usually used. If the "if" clause comes second, there is no need for a comma.
The simple present tense is the tense use in both clauses. Examples:
If you cross an international date line, the time changes.
Phosphorus burns if you expose it to air.


2. First Conditional (Type I)
The first conditional (also called conditional type 1) is a structure used for talking about possibilities in the present or in the future.Type 1: if + present + future.

Example:
If I have the money, I will buy this car.
If it's sunny, we'll go to the park.
Peter will be sad if Susan leaves.
If you cook dinner, I'll wash the dishes.

Among other variations the structure if + present + present is also possible. It is used when the results are habitual or automatic. Example: If a commodity is in short, supply prices tend to rise.


3. Second Conditional (Type II)
The second conditional (also called conditional type 2) is a structure used for talking about unreal situations in the present or in the future.Type 2: if + past + conditional

Example:
If I had the money, I would buy this car. (Since I do not have the money I cannot buy any new car). The action in type 2 is characterized by unreality.
If I were you, I would drive more carefully in the rain.
If dogs had wings, they would be able to fly.
Paula would be sad if Jan left.


4. Third Conditional (Type III)
The third conditional (also called conditional type 3) is a structure used for talking about unreal situations in the past. In other words, it is used to talk about things which DID NOT HAPPEN in the past. Type 3: if + past perfect + perfect conditional
Full form : If I had studied harder, I probably would have passed the exam.
Contracted form :If I'd studied harder, I probably would've passed the exam.

Example:
If I had had the money, I would have bought this Audi. (But I did not have it, and so did not buy).
If you had driven more carefully, you would not have had an accident. (You had an accident because you didn't drive carefully enough.)
If we had played a little better, we could have won the game.(We didn't play well, so we lost the game.)
The action in type 3 is characterized by impossibility.

While type 1 and type 2 focus on the present or future, the time in type 3 is the past and signifies a completed action in the past. The condition, therefore, cannot be fulfilled because the action in the if-clause did not happen.


5. Wish Sentences
The verb wish expresses a desire for a situation that does not exist right now in the present. A wish is a desire to change a real situation into an unreal one. The unreal situation is expressed in the simple past. For example:
I wish I lived in a house. I live in an apartment.
Wish sentences often express regret about a situation that you would like to change e.g.
A:Can you help me? B: No, I'm sorry. I wish I could, but I have an appointment.

In order to express future actions that you want to happen , you use would e.g.
I wish the bus would come. I'm cold.
I wish you'd have a car to take me to the beach.
I wish I were thin.
I wish I hadn't said that. (If fact, I said it)


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Gerunds
A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. The term verbal indicates that a gerund, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies some positions in a sentence that a noun ordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object, subject complement, and object of preposition.

Gerund as subject:

* Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (Traveling is the gerund.)
* The study abroad program might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (The gerund has been removed.)

Gerund as direct object:

* They do not appreciate my singing. (The gerund is singing.)
* They do not appreciate my assistance. (The gerund has been removed)

Gerund as subject complement:

* My cat's favorite activity is sleeping. (The gerund is sleeping.)
* My cat's favorite food is salmon. (The gerund has been removed.)

Gerund as object of preposition:

* The police arrested him for speeding. (The gerund is speeding.)
* The police arrested him for criminal activity. (The gerund has been removed.)

A Gerund Phrase is a group of words consisting of a gerund and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the gerund, such as:

The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence.
Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than what we're trying to do.

Finding (gerund)
a needle (direct object of action expressed in gerund)
in a haystack (prepositional phrase as adverb)

The gerund phrase functions as the direct object of the verb appreciate.
I hope that you appreciate my offering you this opportunity.

my (possessive pronoun adjective form, modifying the gerund)
offering (gerund)
you (indirect object of action expressed in gerund)
this opportunity (direct object of action expressed in gerund)

The gerund phrase functions as the subject complement.
Newt's favorite tactic has been lying to his constituents.

lying to (gerund)
his constituents (direct object of action expressed in gerund)

The gerund phrase functions as the object of the preposition for.
You might get in trouble for faking an illness to avoid work.

faking (gerund)
an illness (direct object of action expressed in gerund)
to avoid work (infinitive phrase as adverb)

The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence.
Being the boss made Jeff feel uneasy.

Being (gerund)
the boss (subject complement for Jeff, via state of being expressed in gerund)


Punctuation
A gerund virtually never requires any punctuation with it.


Points to remember:

1. A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that is used as a noun.
2. A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s).
3. Gerunds and gerund phrases virtually never require punctuation.

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Infinitives

An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb (in its simplest "stem" form) and functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb. The term verbal indicates that an infinitive, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, the infinitive may function as a subject, direct object, subject complement, adjective, or adverb in a sentence. Although an infinitive is easy to locate because of the to + verb form, deciding what function it has in a sentence can sometimes be confusing.

* To wait seemed foolish when decisive action was required. (subject)
* Everyone wanted to go. (direct object)
* His ambition is to fly. (subject complement)
* He lacked the strength to resist. (adjective)
* We must study to learn. (adverb)

Be sure not to confuse an infinitive—a verbal consisting of to plus a verb—with a prepositional phrase beginning with to, which consists of to plus a noun or pronoun and any modifiers.

* Infinitives: to fly, to draw, to become, to enter, to stand, to catch, to belong
* Prepositional Phrases: to him, to the committee, to my house, to the mountains, to us, to this address

An Infinitive Phrase is a group of words consisting of an infinitive and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the actor(s), direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the infinitive, such as:
We intended to leave early.

The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb intended.
to leave (infinitive)
early (adverb)
I have a paper to write before class.

The infinitive phrase functions as an adjective modifying paper.
to write (infinitive)
before class (prepositional phrase as adverb)
Phil agreed to give me a ride.

The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb agreed.
to give (infinitive)
me (indirect object of action expressed in infinitive)
a ride (direct object of action expressed in infinitive)
They asked me to bring some food.

The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb asked.
me (actor or "subject" of infinitive phrase)
to bring (infinitive)
some food (direct object of action expressed in infinitive)
Everyone wanted Carol to be the captain of the team.

The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb wanted.
Carol (actor or "subject" of infinitive phrase)
to be (infinitive)
the captain (subject complement for Carol, via state of being expressed in infinitive)
of the team (prepositional phrase as adjective)

Actors: In these last two examples the actor of the infinitive phrase could be roughly characterized as the "subject" of the action or state expressed in the infinitive. It is somewhat misleading to use the word subject, however, since an infinitive phrase is not a full clause with a subject and a finite verb. Also notice that when it is a pronoun, the actor appears in the objective case (me, not I, in the fourth example). Certain verbs, when they take an infinitive direct object, require an actor for the infinitive phrase; others can't have an actor.

Punctuation: If the infinitive is used as an adverb and is the beginning phrase in a sentence, it should be set off with a comma; otherwise, no punctuation is needed for an infinitive phrase.

* To buy a basket of flowers, John had to spend his last dollar.
* To improve your writing, you must consider your purpose and audience.

Points to remember
1. An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb; it may be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb.
2. An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive plus modifier(s), object(s), complement(s), and/or actor(s).
3. An infinitive phrase requires a comma only if it is used as an adverb at the beginning of a sentence.


Split infinitives
Split infinitives occur when additional words are included between to and the verb in an infinitive. Many readers find a single adverb splitting the infinitive to be acceptable, but this practice should be avoided in formal writing.

Examples:

* I like to on a nice day walk in the woods. * (unacceptable)
On a nice day, I like to walk in the woods. (revised)
* I needed to quickly gather my personal possessions. (acceptable in informal contexts)
I needed to gather my personal possessions quickly. (revised for formal contexts)

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Participles

A participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed. The term verbal indicates that a participle, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since they function as adjectives, participles modify nouns or pronouns. There are two types of participles: present participles and past participles. Present participles end in -ing. Past participles end in -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n, as in the words asked, eaten, saved, dealt, and seen.

* The crying baby had a wet diaper.
* Shaken, he walked away from the wrecked car.
* The burning log fell off the fire.
* Smiling, she hugged the panting dog.

A participial phrase is a group of words consisting of a participle and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the participle, such as:
Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the river.

The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying Jack.
Removing (participle)
his coat (direct object of action expressed in participle)
Delores noticed her cousin walking along the shoreline.

The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying cousin.
walking (participle)
along the shoreline (prepositional phrase as adverb)
Children introduced to music early develop strong intellectual skills.

The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying children.
introduced (to) (participle)
music (direct object of action expressed in participle)
early (adverb)
Having been a gymnast, Lynn knew the importance of exercise.

The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying Lynn.
Having been (participle)
a gymnast (subject complement for Lynn, via state of being expressed in participle)

Placement: In order to prevent confusion, a participial phrase must be placed as close to the noun it modifies as possible, and the noun must be clearly stated.

* Carrying a heavy pile of books, his foot caught on a step. *
* Carrying a heavy pile of books, he caught his foot on a step.

In the first sentence there is no clear indication of who or what is performing the action expressed in the participle carrying. Certainly foot can't be logically understood to function in this way. This situation is an example of a dangling modifier error since the modifier (the participial phrase) is not modifying any specific noun in the sentence and is thus left "dangling." Since a person must be doing the carrying for the sentence to make sense, a noun or pronoun that refers to a person must be in the place immediately after the participial phrase, as in the second sentence.

Punctuation: When a participial phrase begins a sentence, a comma should be placed after the phrase.

* Arriving at the store, I found that it was closed.
* Washing and polishing the car, Frank developed sore muscles.

If the participle or participial phrase comes in the middle of a sentence, it should be set off with commas only if the information is not essential to the meaning of the sentence.

* Sid, watching an old movie, drifted in and out of sleep.
* The church, destroyed by a fire, was never rebuilt.

Note that if the participial phrase is essential to the meaning of the sentence, no commas should be used:

* The student earning the highest grade point average will receive a special award.
* The guy wearing the chicken costume is my cousin.

If a participial phrase comes at the end of a sentence, a comma usually precedes the phrase if it modifies an earlier word in the sentence but not if the phrase directly follows the word it modifies.

* The local residents often saw Ken wandering through the streets.
(The phrase modifies Ken, not residents.)
* Tom nervously watched the woman, alarmed by her silence.
(The phrase modifies Tom, not woman.)

Points to remember
1. A participle is a verbal ending in -ing (present) or -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n (past) that functions as an adjective, modifying a noun or pronoun.
2. A participial phrase consists of a participle plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s).
3. Participles and participial phrases must be placed as close to the nouns or pronouns they modify as possible, and those nouns or pronouns must be clearly stated.
4. A participial phrase is set off with commas when it:
* a) comes at the beginning of a sentence
* b) interrupts a sentence as a nonessential element
* c) comes at the end of a sentence and is separated from the word it modifies.

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Question Tag

A question tag or tag question is a grammatical structure in which a declarative statement or an imperative is turned into a question by adding an interrogative fragment (the "tag"). The term "question tag" is generally preferred by British grammarians, while their American counterparts prefer "tag question".


Forms and uses
In most languages, tag questions are more common in colloquial spoken usage than in formal written usage. They can be an indicator of politeness, emphasis, or irony. They may suggest confidence or lack of confidence; they may be confrontational or tentative. In legal settings, tag questions can be found in leading question. Some examples showing the wide variety of structure possible in English are:

* Open the window, will you?
* She doesn't really want those apples, does she?
* You'd better stop now, hadn't you?
* So you thought it would be a good idea to reprogram the computer, did you?
* It's quite an achievement, isn't it, to win a Nobel prize!
* Oh I must, must I?
* I just adore Beethoven, don't you?
* I'm coming with you, all right?
* You've been there, right?
* Easier said than done, eh?
* You went there, no?

Auxiliary
The English tag question is made up of an auxiliary verb and a pronoun. The auxiliary has to agree with the tense, aspect and modality of the verb in the preceding sentence. If the verb is in the perfect tense, for example, the tag question uses has or have; if the verb is in a present progressive form, the tag is formed with am, are, is; if the verb is in a tense which does not normally use an auxiliary, like the present simple, the auxiliary is taken from the emphatic do form; and if the sentence has a modal auxiliary, this is echoed in the tag:

* He's read this book, hasn't he?
* He read this book, didn't he?
* He's reading this book, isn't he?
* He reads a lot of books, doesn't he?
* He'll read this book, won't he?
* He should read this book, shouldn't he?
* He can read this book, can't he?

A special case occurs when the main verb is to be in a simple tense. Here the tag question repeats the main verb, not an auxiliary:

* This is a book, isn't it?

(Not doesn't it?, as the normal rules for present simple would suggest.)

If the main verb is to have, either solution is possible:

* He has a book, hasn't he?
* He has a book, doesn't he?


Negation
English tag questions may contain a negation, but need not. When there is no special emphasis, the rule of thumb often applies that a positive sentence has a negative tag and vice versa:

* She is French, isn't she?
* She's not French, is she?

These are sometimes called "balanced tag questions". However, it has been estimated that in normal conversation, as many as 40%-50%[2] of tags break this rule. "Unbalanced tag questions" (positive to positive or negative to negative) may be used for ironic or confrontational effects:

* Do listen, will you?
* Oh, I'm lazy, am I?
* Jack: I refuse to spend Sunday at your mother's house! Jill: Oh you do, do you? We'll see about that!
* Jack: I just won't go back! Jill: Oh you won't, won't you?

Patterns of negation can show regional variations. In North East Scotland, for example, positive to positive is used when no special effect is desired:

* This pizza's fine, is it? (standard English: This pizza's delicious, isn't it?)

Note the following variations in the negation when the auxiliary is the I form of the copula:

* England (and America, Australia, etc.): Clever, aren't I?
* Scotland/Northern Ireland: Clever, amn't I?
* nonstandard dialects: Clever, ain't I?


Intonation
English tag questions can have a rising or a falling intonation pattern. This is contrasted with Polish, French or German, for example, where all tags rise. As a rule, the English rising pattern is used when soliciting information or motivating an action, that is, when some sort of response is required. Since normal English yes/no questions have rising patterns (e.g. Are you coming?), these tags make a grammatical statement into a real question:

* You're coming, aren't you?
* Do listen, will you?
* Let's have a beer, shall we?

The falling pattern is used to underline a statement. The statement itself ends with a falling pattern, and the tag sounds like an echo, strengthening the pattern. Most English tag questions have this falling pattern.

* He doesn't know what he's doing, does he?
* This is really boring, isn't it?

Sometimes the rising tag goes with the positive to positive pattern to create a confrontational effect:

* He was the best in the class, was he? (rising: the speaker is challenging this thesis, or perhaps expressing surprised interest)
* He was the best in the class, wasn't he? (falling: the speaker holds this opinion)
* Be careful, will you? (rising: expresses irritation)
* Take care, won't you? (falling: expresses concern)

Sometimes the same words may have different patterns depending on the situation or implication.

* You don't remember my name, do you? (rising: expresses surprise)
* You don't remember my name, do you? (falling: expresses amusement or resignation)
* Your name's Mary, isn't it? (rising: expresses uncertainty)
* Your name's Mary, isn't it? (falling: expresses confidence)

It is interesting that as an all-purpose tag the London set-phrase innit (for "isn't it") is only used with falling patterns:

* He doesn't know what he's doing, innit?
* He was the best in the class, innit?

On the other hand, the adverbial tag questions (alright? OK? etc.) are almost always found with rising patterns. An occasional exception is surely.


Emphasis
English tag questions are normally stressed on the verb, but the stress is on the pronoun if there is a change of person.

* I don't like peas, do you?
* I like peas, don't you?

This is often a rising tag (especially when the tag contains no negation), or the intonation pattern may be the typically English fall-rise

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Modal Verbs
In the English language, a modal verb is an auxiliary verb that can be used to change the grammatical mood of a sentence. The key way to identify a modal verb is by its defectiveness (they have neither participles nor infinitives).

The modal verbs in English are as follows, paired as present and preterite forms:

* shall and should
* will and would
* may and might
* can and could
* mote (Archaic) and must

The following are not modal verbs but may be used for a similar purpose:

* ought to and had better
* used to
* dare and need
* do
* going to
* have to

Although historically referring to past time, the preterite forms have come to be used in many cases with no such meaning.

Syntax
If a verb is preceded by multiple auxiliary verbs including a modal, as in "it could have been eaten," the modal will always appear before the other auxiliary verbs. A verb or auxiliary verb following a modal always appears in its basic form (for example, "could have gone" instead of "could had gone").


Past time use of preterite forms
Preterite forms may be used when referring to situations seen from the perspective of an earlier time. For example, would is originally the past tense of will, and it can still be used in that sense. The statement "People think that we will all be driving hovercars by the year 2000", in the context of the 1960s, can be represented in the present by replacing the verbs in italics by the appropriate preterite forms: "In the 1960s, people thought we would all be driving hovercars by the year 2000." Likewise, "I can do that" may become "I could do that when I was younger, but not anymore."


Conditionals
The preterite forms can also be used in the apodosis in the conditional mood, such as in counterfactual conditionals: "If they had wanted to do it, they would have done it by now." "If you bought a bus pass, you could catch as many buses as you liked without worrying about the cost of the fares." "If he were more polite, he might be better liked."

There is not always an explicit protasis ("if" clause) in this use: "Someone who likes red and hates yellow would probably prefer strawberries to bananas" means the same as "If someone who liked red and hated yellow were offered a choice of fruit, he or she would probably prefer strawberries to bananas." "I could help you with your work" gives a more tentative sense of ability to help than, say, "I can help you with your work" would. The implied protasis could, depending on the context, be along the lines of "If I wanted to".


Shall and will
Shall is used in many of the same senses as will, though not all dialects use shall productively, and those that use both shall and will generally draw a distinction (though different dialects tend to draw different distinctions). In standard, perhaps old-fashioned English, shall in the first person, singular or plural, indicates mere futurity, but in other persons shows an order, command or prophecy: "Cinderella, you shall go to the ball!" It is, therefore, impossible to make shall questions in these persons. Shall we? makes sense, shall you? does not.

Shall derives from a main verb meaning to owe, and in dialects that use both shall and will, it is often used in instances where an obligation, rather than an intention, is expressed.

Shall is also used in legal and engineering language to write firm laws and specifications as in these examples: "Those convicted of violating this law shall be imprisoned for a term of not less than three years nor more than seven years," and "The electronics assembly shall be able to operate within its specifications over a temperature range of 0 degrees Celsius to 70 degrees Celsius."


Should
Should is commonly used, even in dialects where shall is not. The negation is "should not" (or the contraction "shouldn't").

Should can describe an ideal behaviour or occurrence and imparts a normative meaning to the sentence; for example, "You should never lie" means roughly, "If you always behaved perfectly, you would never lie"; and "If this works, you should not feel a thing" means roughly, "I hope this will work. If it does, you will not feel a thing." In dialects that use shall commonly, however, this restriction does not apply; for example, a speaker of such a dialect might say, "If I failed that test, I think I should cry," meaning the same thing as, "If I failed that test, I think I would cry."

In some dialects, it is common to form the subjunctive mood by using should: "It is important that the law should be passed" (where other dialects would say, "It is important that the law be passed") or "If it should happen, we are prepared for it" (or "Should it happen, we are prepared for it"; where early Modern English would say, "If it happen, we are prepared for it," and many dialects of today would say, "If it happens, we are prepared for it").


Would
The contracted form of would is "'d". The negation is either "would not" or "wouldn't".

Would can be used in some forms that are viewed as more formal or polite. For example, "I would like a glass of water" compared with "I want a glass of water"; and "Would you get me a glass of water?" compared with the bare "Get me a glass of water."

"Would" can also be used for the imperfect tense. In the sentence "Back then, I would eat early and would walk to school...." "would" signifies not the conditional mood, but rather, repeated past actions of imperfect tense in English, and one must use care when translating to other languages.


May and might
May and might do not have common negative contractions (equivalents to shan't, won't, can't, couldn't etc.), although mightn't can occur in asking questions. ("Mightn't I come in if I took my muddy boots off?" as a reply to "Don't come in here! You'll get the floor dirty!")

Both forms can be used to express a present time possibility or uncertainty ("That may be."). Might and could can also be used in this sense with no past time meaning. Might and may would carry the same meaning in "John is not in the office today, and he could be sick."

May is also used to express irrelevance in spite of certain or likely truth: "He may be taller than I am, but he is certainly not stronger" may mean roughly, "While it is true that he is taller than I am, that does not make a difference, as he is certainly not stronger." (However, it may also mean, "I am not sure whether he is taller than I am, but I am sure that he is not stronger.") This is the meaning in the phrase "Be that as it may." Might can be used in this sense as well.

Might can be used in the first person to express that future actions are being considered. "I might go to the mall later" means that the speaker is thinking about going to the mall.

May or might can be used in a question to ask for permission. One who is saying "May I use your phone?” is asking for permission to use the phone of the person being spoken to. 'Can' or 'could' can be used instead, although formal American English prefers 'may'. In both cases the preterite form is viewed as more hesitant or polite.


Can and could
The negation of can is the single word "cannot", occasionally written as two words "can not" or the contraction "can't". The negation of could is "could not", or "couldn't".

Can is used to express ability. "I can speak English" means "I am able to speak English", or "I know how to speak English".

It is also used to express that some state of affairs is possible, without referring to the ability of a person to do something: "There can be a very strong rivalry between siblings" can have the same meaning as "There is sometimes a very strong rivalry between siblings".

Cannot and can't can be used to express beliefs about situations: "He cannot have left already; why would he want to get there so early?" expresses with less certainty the same proposition as "He has not left already" does.

Both can and could can be used to make requests: "Can you pass me the cheese?” means "Please pass me the cheese". Could can be used in the same way, and might be considered more polite.

Note that the form could is either preterite (past = was able to) or conditional (would be able to)


Must
Must has no corresponding preterite form. The negation is "must not" or "mustn't". An archaic variant is the word mote, as used in the expression "so mote it be".

Must and have to are used to express that something is obligatory ("He must leave"). It can be used to express a prohibition such as "You must not smoke in here", or a resolution such as "I mustn't make that mistake again".

There is a distinction between must and have to in the negative forms. In the sentence "You must not go", it is being expressed that it is obligatory for the person being spoken to not to go; whereas in the sentence "You do not have to go" it is being expressed that it is not obligatory for the person to go.

Have to can be used for an ongoing obligation, such as "he has to be careful".

Must and have to are used to express beliefs (the epistemic rather than deontic use), such as "It must be here somewhere" or "It has to be here somewhere", with the same meaning as "I believe that it very likely that it is here somewhere."
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Modal Verbs Part 2

Words with a similar function to the modal verbs

Have to
Have to is used in a similar way to must, as discussed above. Except where Have to is used more with an outside obligation such as You have to wear a seatbelt when driving and must is used more commonly with personal obligations I must go to the dentist.


Ought to and had better
Ought to and had better are used to express an ideal behavior or occurrence or suggested obligation, in a similar way to should. The negations are, respectively, ought not to (or rarely, oughtn't to) and had better not. The "had" in "had better" can be contracted, such as "You'd better shut up." In informal American usage, the had in had better is sometimes omitted.

Used to
Used to is used to express past states that were habitual but which are no longer. For example, "I used to go to college" suggests that the speaker no longer goes to college. Negative constructions exist in expressions such as "She used to not like me", or if the speaker is trying to avoid the split infinitive, "She used not to like me".

In some non-standard dialects, used to can follow did not (or didn't), as in "She didn't use to like me".

Dare and need
Dare and need are not commonly used as auxiliaries nowadays, but formerly they both were. Dare is rare with the exception of "How dare you!". "He dare not do it" is equivalent to "He does not dare to do it", while "It need not happen today" is equivalent to today's "It does not need to happen today" or "It might not happen today." However, in the sentence "I need to lose weight," need is not being used as an auxiliary, as takes the infinitive "to lose" as the head of the verb phrase rather than the bare infinitive "lose" that occurs in a phrase like "I can lose weight".

Do
As an auxiliary, do is essentially a "dummy"; that is, it does not generally affect the meaning. It is used to form questions and negations when no other auxiliary is present: "I do not (don't) want to do it." This particular use of do, known as do-support, is attested from around 1400.

It is also sometimes used for emphasis: "I do understand your concern, but I do not think that will happen." Also, do sometimes acts as a pro-verb: "I enjoy it, I really do [enjoy it], but I am not good at it." (Other auxiliaries do this as well: "I can do it, I really can [do it], it just takes me longer"; but it bears particular note that in the case of do, it is often used as a pro-verb when it would be absent if the verb were present.) Because it does not affect the meaning of its verb, not all grammarians acknowledge do as a modal auxiliary. In a sense, it indicates a lack of modal auxiliary. (Do is also different in that it has a distinct third-person singular form, does, and in that its past tense, did, is used exactly as a past tense, not as a more general remote form).


Double modal
In standard English usage, it is grammatically incorrect to use more than one modal verb consecutively, although modals can be used together with modal-like constructions. Thus, 'might have to' is acceptable, but 'might must' is not, even though 'must' and 'have to' can normally be used interchangeably. A greater variety of double modals appears colloquially in some regional or archaic dialects. In Southern American English, for example, phrases such as might could or ought to should are sometimes used in conversation.[4][5] The double modal may sometimes be redundant, as in "I ought to should do something about it", where ought to and should are synonymous and either one could be removed from the sentence. In other double modals, the two modal verbs convey different meanings, such as "I might could do something about it tomorrow", where might indicates the possibility of doing something and could indicates the ability to do it.

Double modals also occur in the closely related Germanic language Scots.

An example of the double modal used to could can be heard in country singer Bill Carlisle's 1951 song "Too Old to Cut the Mustard":

I used to could jump just like a deer,
But now I need a new landing gear.
I used to could jump a picket fence,
But now I'm lucky if I jump an inch.[6]

These kind of double modal phrases are generally not regarded as correct grammar, although other double modals may be used instead. "I might could do something about it" is more often expressed as "I might be able to do something about it", which is considered more grammatical. Similarly used to could is usually expressed as used to be able to. Double modals can also be avoided by replacing one of the modal verbs with an appropriate adverb, such as using probably could or might possibly in place of might could.

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Tenses Part 1

Simple Present (Present Simple)

Simple present is also called present simple.
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The simple present expresses an action in the present taking place once, never or several times. It is also used for actions that take place one after another and for actions that are set by a timetable or schedule. The simple present also expresses facts in the present.

Form

be
Use:
* am with the personal pronoun I
* is with the personal pronouns he, she or it (or with the singular form of nouns)
* are with the personal pronouns we, you or they (or with the plural form of nouns)

example: I am hungry.

have
Use:

* have with the personal pronouns I, you, we und they (or with the plural form of nouns)
* has with the personal pronouns he, she, it (or with the singular form of nouns)

example: I have a dog. / I have got a dog

All other verbs
Use:
* the infinite verb (play) with the personal pronouns I, you, we and they (or with the plural form of nouns)
* the verb + s (plays) with the personal pronouns he, she, it (or with the singular form of nouns)


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Present Progressive

The present progressive puts emphasis on the course or duration of an action.
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The present progressive is used for actions going on in the moment of speaking and for actions taking place only for a short period of time. It is also used to express development and actions that are arranged for the near future.

Present progressive is also known as present continuous.

Form
Use a form of to be and the infinite verb plus -ing.
Use:

* am with the personal pronoun I
* is with the personal pronouns he, she or it (or the singular form of nouns)
* are with the personal pronouns you, we, they (or the plural form of nouns)

Example:
  • I am playing.
  • He is not playing.
  • Are you playing?


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Tenses Part 2

Simple Past

FORM
[VERB+ed] or irregular verbs

Examples:
* You called Debbie.
* Did you call Debbie?
* You did not call Debbie.

USE 1 Completed Action in the Past
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Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.

Examples:
* I saw a movie yesterday.
* I didn't see a play yesterday.
* Last year, I didn't travel to Korea.
* Did you have dinner last night?
* She washed her car.
* He didn't wash his car.

USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions
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We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.

Examples:
* I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.
* He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.
* Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?

USE 3 Duration in Past
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The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.

Examples:
* I lived in Brazil for two years.
* Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
* They sat at the beach all day.
* They did not stay at the party the entire time.
* We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
* A: How long did you wait for them?
B: We waited for one hour.

USE 4 Habits in the Past
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The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.

Examples:
* I studied French when I was a child.
* He played the violin.
* He didn't play the piano.
* Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
* She worked at the movie theater after school.
* They never went to school, they always skipped class.

USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations
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The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to."

Examples:
* She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
* He didn't like tomatoes before.
* Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?
* People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.

IMPORTANT When-Clauses Happen First
Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when I dropped my pen..." or "when class began..." These clauses are called when-clauses, and they are very important. The examples below contain when-clauses.

Examples:
* When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.
* She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.

When-clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. Both of the examples above mean the same thing: first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered my question. It is not important whether "when I paid her one dollar" is at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she answered my question, and then, I paid her one dollar.

Example:
* I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.


ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:
* You just called Debbie.
* Did you just call Debbie?

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Past Continuous
FORM

[was/were + present participle]

Examples:
* You were studying when she called.
* Were you studying when she called?
* You were not studying when she called.

USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past
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Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.

Examples:
* I was watching TV when she called.
* When the phone rang, she was writing a letter.
* While we were having the picnic, it started to rain.
* What were you doing when the earthquake started?
* You were not listening to me when I told you to turn the oven off.
* While John was sleeping last night, someone stole his car.
* Sammy was waiting for us when we got off the plane.
* While I was writing the email, the computer suddenly went off.
* A: What were you doing when you broke your leg?
B: I was snowboarding.

USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption
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In USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter action in the Simple Past. However, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.

Examples:
* Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.
* At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.
* Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work.

IMPORTANT
In the Simple Past, a specific time is used to show when an action began or finished. In the Past Continuous, a specific time only interrupts the action.

Examples:
* Last night at 6 PM, I ate dinner.
I started eating at 6 PM.
* Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.
I started earlier; and at 6 PM, I was in the process of eating dinner.

USE 3 Parallel Actions
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When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.

Examples:
* I was studying while he was making dinner.
* While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television.
* Were you listening while he was talking?
* I wasn't paying attention while I was writing the letter, so I made several mistakes.
* What were you doing while you were waiting?
* Thomas wasn't working, and I wasn't working either.
* They were eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.

USE 4 Atmosphere

In English, we often use a series of parallel actions to describe the atmosphere at a particular time in the past.

Example:
* When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service.

USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"
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The Past Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happened in the past. The concept is very similar to the expression "used to" but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."

Examples:
* She was always coming to class late.
* He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone.
* I didn't like them because they were always complaining.

While vs. When
Clauses are groups of words which have meaning, but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when she called" or "when it bit me." Other clauses begin with "while" such as "while she was sleeping" and "while he was surfing." When you talk about things in the past, "when" is most often followed by the verb tense Simple Past, whereas "while" is usually followed by Past Continuous. "While" expresses the idea of "during that time." Study the examples below. They have similar meanings, but they emphasize different parts of the sentence.

Examples:
* I was studying when she called.
* While I was studying, she called.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs
It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Past Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Past.

Examples:
* Jane was being at my house when you arrived. Not Correct
* Jane was at my house when you arrived. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:
* You were just studying when she called.
* Were you just studying when she called?

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Tenses Part 3

Present Perfect

FORM
[has/have + past participle]

Examples:
* You have seen that movie many times.
* Have you seen that movie many times?
* You have not seen that movie many times.

USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now
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We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.

Examples:
* I have seen that movie twenty times.
* I think I have met him once before.
* There have been many earthquakes in California.
* People have traveled to the Moon.
* People have not traveled to Mars.
* Have you read the book yet?
* Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
* A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.

How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?
The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:

TOPIC 1 Experience
You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.

Examples:
* I have been to France.
This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times.
* I have been to France three times.
You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.
* I have never been to France.
This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.
* I think I have seen that movie before.
* He has never traveled by train.
* Joan has studied two foreign languages.
* A: Have you ever met him?
B: No, I have not met him.

TOPIC 2 Change Over Time
We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.

Examples:
* You have grown since the last time I saw you.
* The government has become more interested in arts education.
* Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.
* My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.

TOPIC 3 Accomplishments
We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.

Examples:
* Man has walked on the Moon.
* Our son has learned how to read.
* Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
* Scientists have split the atom.

TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting
We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen.

Examples:
* James has not finished his homework yet.
* Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
* Bill has still not arrived.
* The rain hasn't stopped.

TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times

We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible.

Examples:
* The army has attacked that city five times.
* I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
* We have had many major problems while working on this project.
* She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.

Time Expressions with Present Perfect
When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important.
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Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc.
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Examples:
* Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
* I have seen that movie six times in the last month.
* They have had three tests in the last week.
* She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far.
* My car has broken down three times this week.

NOTICE
"Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. "In the last year" means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect.

Examples:

* I went to Mexico last year.
I went to Mexico in the calendar year before this one.
* I have been to Mexico in the last year.
I have been to Mexico at least once at some point between 365 days ago and now.

USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)
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With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.

Examples:
* I have had a cold for two weeks.
* She has been in England for six months.
* Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.

Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:
* You have only seen that movie one time.
* Have you only seen that movie one time?

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Present Perfect Continuous

FORM
[has/have + been + present participle]

Examples:
* You have been waiting here for two hours.
* Have you been waiting here for two hours?
* You have not been waiting here for two hours.

USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now
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We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.

Examples:
* They have been talking for the last hour.
* She has been working at that company for three years.
* What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?
* James has been teaching at the university since June.
* We have been waiting here for over two hours!
* Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?

USE 2 Recently, Lately
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You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning.

Examples:
* Recently, I have been feeling really tired.
* She has been watching too much television lately.
* Have you been exercising lately?
* Mary has been feeling a little depressed.
* Lisa has not been practicing her English.
* What have you been doing?

IMPORTANT
Remember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of "lately" or "recently." If you use the Present Perfect Continuous in a question such as "Have you been feeling alright?", it can suggest that the person looks sick or unhealthy. A question such as "Have you been smoking?" can suggest that you smell the smoke on the person. Using this tense in a question suggests you can see, smell, hear or feel the results of the action. It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs
It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Present Perfect.

Examples:
* Sam has been having his car for two years. Not Correct
* Sam has had his car for two years. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:
* You have only been waiting here for one hour.
* Have you only been waiting here for one hour?

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Tenses Part 4

Past Perfect

FORM
[had + past participle]

Examples:
* You had studied English before you moved to New York.
* Had you studied English before you moved to New York?
* You had not studied English before you moved to New York.

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past
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The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.

Examples:
* I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
* I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
* Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
* Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
* She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
* Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
* We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.
* A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)
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With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.

Examples:
* We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.
* By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
* They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.

Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.


IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect
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Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.

Example:
* She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

MOREOVER


If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. The words "before" and "after" actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.

Examples:
* She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
* She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

HOWEVER
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If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.

Examples:
* She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct
* She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:
* You had previously studied English before you moved to New York.
* Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?

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Past Perfect Continuous

FORM

[had been + present participle]

Examples:
* You had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.
* Had you been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived?
* You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.

USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Past
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We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. "For five minutes" and "for two weeks" are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the past.

Examples:
* They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived.
* She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business.
* How long had you been waiting to get on the bus?
* Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work.
* James had been teaching at the university for more than a year before he left for Asia.
* A: How long had you been studying Turkish before you moved to Ankara?
B: I had not been studying Turkish very long.

USE 2 Cause of Something in the Past
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Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect.

Examples:
* Jason was tired because he had been jogging.
* Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.
* Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class.

Past Continuous vs. Past Perfect Continuous
If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday," many English speakers choose to use the Past Continuous rather than the Past Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Past Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Past Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the past. Study the examples below to understand the difference.

Examples:
* He was tired because he was exercising so hard.
This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he was exercising at that exact moment.
* He was tired because he had been exercising so hard.
This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he had been exercising over a period of time. It is possible that he was still exercising at that moment OR that he had just finished.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs
It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Past Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Past Perfect.

Examples:
* The motorcycle had been belonging to George for years before Tina bought it. Not Correct
* The motorcycle had belonged to George for years before Tina bought it. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:
* You had only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived.
* Had you only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived?

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Tenses Part 5

Simple Future

Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will become clear. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future.
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FORM Will
[will + verb]

Examples:
* You will help him later.
* Will you help him later?
* You will not help him later.

FORM Be Going To
[am/is/are + going to + verb]

Examples:
* You are going to meet Jane tonight.
* Are you going to meet Jane tonight?
* You are not going to meet Jane tonight.

USE 1 "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action
"Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often, we use "will" to respond to someone else's complaint or request for help. We also use "will" when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use "will not" or "won't" when we refuse to voluntarily do something.

Examples:
* I will send you the information when I get it.
* Will you help me move this heavy table?
* I will not do your homework for you.
* I won't do all the housework myself!
* A: I'm really hungry.
B: I'll make some sandwiches.
* A: I'm so tired. I'm about to fall asleep.
B: I'll get you some coffee.
* A: The phone is ringing.
B: I'll get it.

USE 2 "Will" to Express a Promise
"Will" is usually used in promises.

Examples:
* I will call you when I arrive.
* If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access to inexpensive health insurance.
* I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party.
* Don't worry, I'll be careful.
* I won't tell anyone your secret.

USE 3 "Be going to" to Express a Plan
"Be going to" expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not.

Examples:
* He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii.
* A: When are we going to meet each other tonight?
B: We are going to meet at 6 PM.
* I'm going to be an actor when I grow up.
* Michelle is going to begin medical school next year.
* They are going to drive all the way to Alaska.
* Who are you going to invite to the party?
* A: Who is going to make John's birthday cake?
B: Sue is going to make John's birthday cake.

USE 4 "Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a Prediction
Both "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In "prediction" sentences, the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. In the following examples, there is no difference in meaning.

Examples:
* The year 2222 will be a very interesting year.
* The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year.

* John Smith will be the next President.
* John Smith is going to be the next President.

* The movie "Zenith" will win several Academy Awards.
* The movie "Zenith" is going to win several Academy Awards.

IMPORTANT
In the Simple Future, it is not always clear which USE the speaker has in mind. Often, there is more than one way to interpret a sentence's meaning.
No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future forms, the Simple Future cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Simple Future, Simple Present is used.

Examples:
* When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Not Correct
* When you arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:
* You will never help him.
* Will you ever help him?

* You are never going to meet Jane.
* Are you ever going to meet Jane?

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Future Continuous

Future Continuous has two different forms: "will be doing " and "be going to be doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.

FORM Future Continuous with "Will"
[will be + present participle]

Examples:
* You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
* Will you be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight?
* You will not be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.

FORM Future Continuous with "Be Going To "
[am/is/are + going to be + present participle]

Examples:
* You are going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
* Are you going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight?
* You are not going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.

REMEMBER: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Continuous with little difference in meaning.

USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Future
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Use the Future Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.

Examples:
* I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight.
* I will be waiting for you when your bus arrives.
* I am going to be staying at the Madison Hotel, if anything happens and you need to contact me.
* He will be studying at the library tonight, so he will not see Jennifer when she arrives.

Notice in the examples above that the interruptions (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption in the Future

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In USE 1, described above, the Future Continuous is interrupted by a short action in the future. In addition to using short actions as interruptions, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.

Examples:
* Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner.
I will be in the process of eating dinner.
* At midnight tonight, we will still be driving through the desert.
We will be in the process of driving through the desert.

REMEMBER
In the Simple Future, a specific time is used to show the time an action will begin or end. In the Future Continuous, a specific time interrupts the action.

Examples:
* Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to eat dinner.
I am going to start eating at 6 PM.
* Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner.
I am going to start earlier and I will be in the process of eating dinner at 6 PM.

USE 3 Parallel Actions in the Future
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When you use the Future Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions will be happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.

Examples:
* I am going to be studying and he is going to be making dinner.
* Tonight, they will be eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.
* While Ellen is reading, Tim will be watching television.
Notice "is reading" because of the time clause containing "while." (See Explanation Below)

USE 4 Atmosphere in the Future
In English, we often use a series of Parallel Actions to describe atmosphere at a specific point in the future.

Example:
* When I arrive at the party, everybody is going to be celebrating. Some will be dancing. Others are going to be talking. A few people will be eating pizza, and several people are going to be drinking beer. They always do the same thing.

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses
Like all future tenses, the Future Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Continuous, Present Continuous is used.

Examples:
* While I am going to be finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Not Correct
* While I am finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Correct

AND REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs
It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Future Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Future.

Examples:
* Jane will be being at my house when you arrive. Not Correct
* Jane will be at my house when you arrive. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:
* You will still be waiting for her when her plane arrives.
* Will you still be waiting for her when her plane arrives?

* You are still going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives.
* Are you still going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives?

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Tenses Part 6

Future Perfect

Future Perfect has two different forms: "will have done" and "be going to have done." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect forms are usually interchangeable.

FORM Future Perfect with "Will"
[will have + past participle]

Examples:
* You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
* Will you have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?
* You will not have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.

FORM Future Perfect with "Be Going To"
[am/is/are + going to have + past participle]

Examples:
* You are going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
* Are you going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?
* You are not going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.

NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Perfect with little or no difference in meaning.

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Future
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The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future.

Examples:
* By next November, I will have received my promotion.
* By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house.
* I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock.
* Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she moves to Beijing?
* Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this afternoon.
* By the time I finish this course, I will have taken ten tests.
* How many countries are you going to have visited by the time you turn 50?

Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs)
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With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future.

Examples:
* I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.
* By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.

Although the above use of Future Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses
Like all future forms, the Future Perfect cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect, Present Perfect is used.

Examples:
* I am going to see a movie when I will have finished my homework. Not Correct
* I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:
* You will only have learned a few words.
* Will you only have learned a few words?

* You are only going to have learned a few words.
* Are you only going to have learned a few words?

-Source-


Future Perfect Continuous

Future Perfect Continuous has two different forms: "will have been doing " and "be going to have been doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.

FORM Future Perfect Continuous with "Will"
[will have been + present participle]

Examples:
* You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
* Will you have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?
* You will not have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

FORM Future Perfect Continuous with "Be Going To"
[am/is/are + going to have been + present participle]

Examples:
* You are going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
* Are you going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?
* You are not going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Perfect Continuous with little or no difference in meaning.

USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Future

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We use the Future Perfect Continuous to show that something will continue up until a particular event or time in the future. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Friday" are all durations which can be used with the Future Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous; however, with Future Perfect Continuous, the duration stops at or before a reference point in the future.

Examples:
* They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives.
* She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes.
* James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time he leaves for Asia.
* How long will you have been studying when you graduate?
* We are going to have been driving for over three days straight when we get to Anchorage.
* A: When you finish your English course, will you have been living in New Zealand for over a year?
B: No, I will not have been living here that long.

Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because these future events are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

USE 2 Cause of Something in the Future
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Using the Future Perfect Continuous before another action in the future is a good way to show cause and effect.

Examples:
* Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour.
* Claudia's English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she is going to have been studying English in the United States for over two years.

Future Continuous vs. Future Perfect Continuous
If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday," many English speakers choose to use the Future Continuous rather than the Future Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Future Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Future Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the future. Study the examples below to understand the difference.

Examples:

* He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard.
This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will be exercising at that exact moment in the future.
* He will be tired because he will have been exercising so hard.
This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will have been exercising for a period of time. It is possible that he will still be exercising at that moment OR that he will just have finished.

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses
Like all future forms, the Future Perfect Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous is used.

Examples:
* You won't get a promotion until you will have been working here as long as Tim. Not Correct
* You won't get a promotion until you have been working here as long as Tim. Correct

AND REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs
It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Future Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Future Perfect .

Examples:
* Ned will have been having his driver's license for over two years. Not Correct
* Ned will have had his driver's license for over two years. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:
* You will only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.
* Will you only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?

* You are only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.
* Are you only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?

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Tenses Part 7

Would Always

FORM
[would always + VERB]

Examples:
* You would always take your surfboard with you when you went to the beach.
* Would you always take your surfboard with you when you went to the beach?
* You would not always take your surfboard with you when you went to the beach.

USE 1 Habit in the Past
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Like "used to" and Simple Past, "would always" expresses the idea that something was an old habit which stopped in the past. It says that an action was often repeated in the past, but it is not usually done now. Unlike "used to" and Simple Past, "would always" suggests that someone willingly acted that way and sometimes expresses annoyance or amusement at the habit. It also often suggests the habit was extreme. To express the opposite idea, we can say "would never" to indicate that someone never did something in the past, but now they do.

Examples:
* She would always send me strange birthday gifts.
* Sam and Mary would always choose the most exotic vacation destinations.
* Sally would not always arrive early to class. She came late once or twice.
* Ned would always show up at our house without calling first.
* Mindy would not always walk to school. Sometimes, she took the bus.
* Christine would always come late to the meetings.
* Jeff would never pay for drinks when we went out together with our friends.
Refusing to do something or normally not doing something is also a form of habit.

REMEMBER "Would Always" is Different
"Would always" is not exactly the same as "used to" or the Simple Past. "Would always" cannot be used to talk about past facts or generalizations. It can only be used for repeated actions.

Examples:
* Sarah was shy, but now she is very outgoing. Correct
* Sarah used to be shy, but now she is very outgoing. Correct
* Sarah would always be shy, but now she is very outgoing. Not Correct

Forms Related to "Would Always"
In addition to "would always," English speakers often use "would constantly," "would often," "would forever" or simply "would." Although the last form "would" is correct, it is not suggested because it can easily be confused with other verb forms such as the Conditional or Future in the Past. Similarly, speakers can use "would rarely," "would occasionally" and "would seldom" to express the idea that an action was not often repeated.

Examples:
* Jerry would come to the parties every weekend.
* Jerry would constantly bring his girlfriend to the parties.
* Jerry would often bring his best friend to the parties.
* Jerry would occasionally bring his older brother to the parties.
* Jerry would seldom bring his sister to the parties.
* Jerry would never bring his younger brother to the parties.


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Future in the Past

Like Simple Future, Future in the Past has two different forms in English: "would" and "was going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two different meanings.

FORM Would
[would + VERB]

Examples:
* I knew you would help him.
* I knew you would not help him.

FORM Was/Were Going To
[was/were + going to + VERB]

Examples:
* I knew you were going to go to the party.
* I knew you were not going to go to the party.

USE 1 Future in Past
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Future in the Past is used to express the idea that in the past you thought something would happen in the future. It does not matter if you are correct or not. Future in the Past follows the same basic rules as the Simple Future. "Would" is used to volunteer or promise, and "was going to" is used to plan. Moreover, both forms can be used to make predictions about the future.

Examples:
* I told you he was going to come to the party. plan
* I knew Julie would make dinner. voluntary action
* Jane said Sam was going to bring his sister with him, but he came alone. plan
* I had a feeling that the vacation was going to be a disaster. prediction
* He promised he would send a postcard from Egypt. promise

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses
Like all future forms, Future in the Past cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of using Future in the Past, you must use Simple Past.

Examples:
* I already told Mark that when he would arrive, we would go out for dinner. Not Correct
* I already told Mark that when he arrived, we would go out for dinner. Correct

-Source-

Used To

FORM
[used to + VERB]

Example:
* I used to go to the beach every day.

It is better not to use "used to" in questions or negative forms; however, this is sometimes done in informal spoken English. It is better to ask questions and create negative sentences using Simple Past.

USE 1 Habit in the Past
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"Used to" expresses the idea that something was an old habit that stopped in the past. It indicates that something was often repeated in the past, but it is not usually done now.

Examples:
* Jerry used to study English.
* Sam and Mary used to go to Mexico in the summer.
* I used to start work at 9 o'clock.
* Christine used to eat meat, but now she is a vegetarian.

USE 2 Past Facts and Generalizations
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"Used to" can also be used to talk about past facts or generalizations which are no longer true.

Examples:
* I used to live in Paris.
* Sarah used to be fat, but now she is thin.
* George used to be the best student in class, but now Lena is the best.
* Oranges used to cost very little in Florida, but now they are quite expensive.

"Used to" vs. Simple Past
Both Simple Past and "Used to" can be used to describe past habits, past facts and past generalizations; however, "used to" is preferred when emphasizing these forms of past repetition in positive sentences. On the other hand, when asking questions or making negative sentences, Simple Past is preferred.

Examples:
* You used to play the piano.
* Did you play the piano when you were young?
* You did not play the piano when you were young.

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Active / Passive Verb Forms

Sentences can be active or passive. Therefore, tenses also have "active forms" and "passive forms." You must learn to recognize the difference to successfully speak English.

Active Form
In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.

[Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action]

Examples:
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Passive Form
In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action.

[Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action]

Examples:
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Relative Pronoun

Relative Pronoun

Definition: We use the relative pronouns to refer to a noun mentioned before and of which we are adding more information. They are used to join two or more sentences and forming in that way what we call "relative sentences".

Relative pronouns
Who, Whom, That, Which
whoever, whomever, whichever


For example:

* People who speak two languages are called bilingual.
* In this example, the relative "who" introduces the relative sentence "speak two languages" that describes or gives more information about the noun "people".

Relative pronouns: Subject or Object
As the relative pronouns relate to another noun preceding it in the sentence, they connect a dependent clause to an antecedent (a noun that precedes the pronoun.) Therefore, relative pronouns acts as the subject or object of the dependent clause.

For example:

* The chef who won the competition studied in Paris.
* Here, "who" relates back to (or is relative to) the noun "Chef". "Who" also acts as the subject of the dependent clause and the verb "won".
=> The dependent clause: who won the competition.
=> The independent clause: The chef studied in Paris.

* The shirt that Carl bought has a stain on the pocket.
* Here, "that" relates back to (or is relative to) the noun "shirt". "That" is also the object of the verb "bought".
=> The dependent clause is: that Carl bought.
=> The independent clause: The shirt has a stain on the pocket.

Referring to people: Who, Whom, Whoever, Whomever
These pronouns take a different case depending on whether the relative pronoun is a subject or an object in the dependent clause.

1. Subjective case
Use the subjective case when these relative pronouns are the subject (initiating the action) of the dependent clause: Who, Whoever

For example:
* Negotiations were not going smoothly between the two leaders, who made no bones about not liking each other.
* "Who" relates back to the noun "leaders" and is the subject of the dependent clause and the verb "made".
* Most workers, whoever was not employed by the auto manufacturer, toiled at one of the millions of little minnow companies.
* "Whoever" relates back to the noun "workers" and is the subject of the dependent clause and the verb "was employed".

2. Objective case
Use the objective case when these relative pronouns are the object (receiving the action) of the dependent clause: Whom, Whomever

For example:
* This is the approach taken by journalists, whom some consider to be objective.
* "Whom" relates back to the noun "journalists" and is the object of the verb "consider". The subject of the dependent clause is "some".

* The three representatives, whomever the committee chooses, should be at the meeting tomorrow.
* "Whomever" relates back to the noun representatives and is the object of the verb "chooses". The subject of the dependent clause is "Committee".

Referring to a place, thing or idea: Which, That
When using relative pronouns for places, things or ideas, rather than determining case, the writer must decide whether the information in the dependent clause is essential to the meaning of the independent clause or simply additional information.

When information is critical to the understanding of the main clause, use That as the appropriate relative pronoun and do not set the information off by commas.

For example:

* Russian generals have delivered a message that is difficult to ignore.
* "That" relates back to the noun "message" and is necessary for the reader to know what "message" the sentence is about.

* There is another factor that obviously boosts the reputation of both of these men.
* "That" relates back to the noun "factor" and is necessary for the reader to know what "factor" the sentence is about.

When information is not critical to the understanding of the main clause, use "Which" as the appropriate relative pronoun and set the information off by commas.

For example:

* The toughest intramural fight of all for Clinton was the North American Free Trade Agreement, which he undertook a full year before the 1994 election.
* "Which" relates back to the noun "agreement" and the information following it is not necessary for the reader to know what "agreement" the sentence is about.

* Clinton refused to head toward the center on affirmative action and abortion, which are the two most sacred issues to the traditional liberal wing of the party.
* "Wich" relates back to the noun "affirmative action and abortion" and the information following it is not necessary for the reader to know what "affirmative action and abortion" the sentence is about.

When referring to more than one place, thing or idea use these relative pronouns: Whatever, Whichever

For example:

* The three approaches, whichever works is fine, produce a more ambiguous picture of a man.
* "Whichever" relates to the noun "approaches" and the information contained within the commas is additional, not critical information.

* Any excessive profits, whatever exceeded accepted limits, would attract the notice of representatives.
* "Whatever" relates to the noun "profits" and the information contained within the commas is additional, not critical information.

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Quote:


emoticon-Purple Repost

The adalah definite article atau kata sandang tertentu yang sering digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris. Kata the dapat berarti itu.


The selalu diletakkan di depan kata benda atau nomina, dan juga di depan adjektiva atau kata lainnya yang menerangkan kata benda tersebut, contoh: the man, the old man, etc.

Bentuk article the digunakan tanpa membedakan atau berlaku sama untuk kata benda tunggal/jamak, kata benda dapat dihitung/tidak dapat dihitung, maupun gender (jenis kelamin), contoh: the boy, the boys, the woman, the children, the ice, the dust, etc.


Definite article the digunakan:

1. di depan nomina yang telah disebutkan sebelumnya.
- I ordered a pizza and salad. The pizza was nice but the salad was disgusting.
- There were three questions. The first two were relatively easy but the third one was hard.

2. di depan nomina yang unik atau dianggap hanya ada satu, misalnya: the sun, the moon, the world, the earth.

3. di depan nomina atau frase nomina yang menunjukkan seseorang atau sesuatu yang telah ditentukan, misalnya: the dress I wore, the girl in red, the time I met him, the road to Bali, the man that I meet.

4. di depan suatu nomina yang sudah umum diketahui.
- What was the weather like?
- I looked out into the darkness.
- The shops open at 9 o'clock.

5. untuk menunjukkan orang atau objek tertentu yang kita maksud.
- The man who wrote this book is famous.
- Which car did you scratch? The red one.
- My house is the one with a green door.

6. bila satu sama lain, dalam percakapan, mengerti apa yang sedang dibicarakan, meskipun tidak disebutkan sebelumnya.
- Where’s the bathroom? It’s on the first floor.

7. sebelum superlatives, ordinal numbers, dan kata only, misalnya: the highest building, the sweetest thing, the only way, the first page, the last chapter.

8. sebelum adjektiva untuk membentuk nomina (plural) yang menunjukkan orang dengan tipe tertentu atau orang yang tinggal di negara tertentu, misalnya: the poor, the unemployed, the elderly, the British, the French, the impossible, etc.
- He knows he’s wishing for the impossible.
- I thought you might like to read the enclosed.

9. di depan nama laut, sungai, kepulauan, pegunungan, gurun, wilayah, atau tempat yang berkaitan dengan alam atau bumi, misalnya: the Caribbean, the Sahara, the Atlantic, the Pacific Ocean, the Mississippi, the Alps, the gulf of Mexico.

10. di depan nomina yang menunjukkan satuan waktu seperti abad, dekade, dan tanggal, misalnya: the 12th of December, the beginning, in the morning, during the whole year.
- In the thirties unemployment was widespread.
- She remembers the war years.

11. di awal sekelompok nomina dimana pada nomina yang pertama diikuti oleh of phrase atau klausa yang menunjukkan sesuatu atau seseorang.
- There has been a slight increase in the consumption of meat.
- Of the 9,660 cases processed last year, only 10 per cent were totally rejected.

12. dapat menggantikan possessive determiner, terutama saat membicarakan anggota sebuah keluarga atau bagian tubuh seseorang.
- I patted him on the head.
- “How’s the family?” – “Just fine, thank you”.

13. pada nama alat musik saat membicarakan kemampuan seseorang memainkan alat musik tersebut.
- She was trying to teach him to play the guitar.
- He plays the violin.

14. di depan nomina tunggal (singular noun) saat membuat pernyataan umum yang mewakili golongan atau tipe dari sesuatu atau seseorang tertentu.
- The tiger is without doubt the most magnificent of the big cats.
- The computer has changed everyone’s lives in so many ways.

15. untuk menunjukkan suatu keluarga atau pasangan suami istri dengan menyebutkan nama keluarganya dalam bentuk plural. The diletakkan di depannya.
- The Taylors decided that they would employ an architect to do the work.
- The Johnsons had lived in this house for many years.

16. untuk menunjukkan bahwa sesuatu yang dimiliki itu cukup (enough) untuk melakukan tujuan tertentu.
- I haven’t the time to talk just now.
- He didn’t have the strength to go on fighting.

17. di depan comparative adjectives or adverbs.
- The longer you have been in shape in the past, the quicker you will regain fitness in future.

18. ketika menyatakan suatu nilai, harga dan ukuran, the dipakai untuk menunjukkan berapa banyak unit digunakan pada sesuatu yang diukur/dinilai tersebut.
- New Japanese cars averaged 13 km to the litre in 1981.
- Some analysts predicted that the exchange rate would soon be $2 to the pound.

19. untuk menunjukkan bahwa seseorang atau sesuatu itu sangat penting, terkenal, atau yang terbaik diantara yang lainnya. Dalam percakapan, the diucapkan lebih jelas atau diberi penekanan, sedangkan dalam tulisan diberi garis bawah atau ditulis dalam huruf besar atau huruf miring.
- ‘Elizabeth Taylor was there.’ ‘Not the Elizabeth Taylor, surely?’
- Miami is THE place for girls who like to live life to the full.

20. bersama dengan satuan pengukuran (unit of measurement), the dapat berarti every (setiap/tiap-tiap).
- My car does forty miles to the gallon.
- You get paid by the hour.

21. bersama dengan satuan waktu (unit of time), the dapat berarti sekarang atau saat ini.
- Why not have the dish of the day?
- She’s flavour of the month with him.

22. sebelum nomina yang mengacu pada suatu tindakan atau perubahan, yang juga diikuti oleh kata of.
- the growth of the steel industry
- the arrival of our guests

23. sebelum nomina tunggal (singular noun) yang menunjukkan jenis dari institusi, toko, sistem, dsb.
- You used to buy them from the chemist.
- I heard it on the radio.
- I’ll put it in the mail for you today.

24. untuk mengacu pada bagian dari organ tubuh seseorang.
- Lieutenant Taylor was wounded in the knee.
- How’s the ankle? Is it still hurting?

25. untuk mengacu pada jenis atau even olahraga, terutama atletik atau renang.
- Who won the long jump?
- She swam up and down, practising the crawl.

26. dalam percakapan sebelum suatu kata atau frase yang menggambarkan seseorang atau sesuatu ketika marah, iri, terkejut, dsb.
- He’s stolen my parking space, the bastard!
- I can’t get this carton open, the stupid thing.
- “Jamie’s won a holiday in Hawaii.” “The lucky devil!”

27. sebelum nama penyakit atau sakit tertentu yang lazim kita alami.
- If one of the children got the measles, we all got the measles.
- Aspirin should help reduce the fever.

28. sebelum nama bangunan yang diperuntukkan untuk kepentingan umum.
- the Town Hall
- the Science Museum
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