hampir seluruh kisah utama dalam perjanjian lama alkitab/tanakh sudah TS tulis kisah pembandingnya..
*yg dititik merah sdh ts tulis mitologi timur tengah kuno pembandingnya,lihat daftar di pejwan
*garis merah adalah pemisah antara perjanjian lama dan baru
kecuali utk kisah2 yg berasal dari kitab samuel dan raja-raja/kings(dilingkaran biru) yg memang tokohnya disandur dari buku raja israel(buku yg berbeda dari alkitab/tanakh), dimana arkeologi membuktikan bahwa kebanyakan raja raja dalam kitab kings tersebut kebanyakan sdh terbukti real person(tp bukan berarti mengakui narasi kisah kings dan samuel akurat..pembahasannya sdh bukan mitologi lagi),
Seperti yg sdh ditulis di page 1, enuma elish menceritakan tentang penciptaan dunia melalui pertempuran dewa muda(marduk,an,enki,enlil,dll) melawan dewa tua(tiamat,qingu),kemudian dari darah qingu+tanah liat,dicipitakanlah manusia,dan dari badan tiamat(chaos/air laut) yg dibelah dua,diciptakan lah langit dan dunia.Apabila kita membadingkannya dengan alkitab,maka kisah enuma elish(yg hanya bercerita tentang penciptaan dunia) seperti dibagi dua dialkitab,yaitu tentang penciptaan dunia dan tanda akhir zaman.
penciptaan dunia - Pada kitab kejadian(genesis) dikisahkan theom(air laut/chaos) yg dibagi dua oleh Tuhan utk menciptakan dunia, tanpa pertempuran sama sekali.
tanda akhir zaman - Sementara kisah pertempuran yahweh yg membelah dua leviathan justru muncul dalam kisah akhir zaman(lihat mazmur/psalm,ringkasannya di sini dan disini),juga pada mimpi tanda akhir zaman versi daniel(daniel 7) yg bercerita tentang 4 monster yg muncul dari laut yg kemudian dihabisi “son of man”yg ditafsir sebagai messias(yg kita bisa padankan sebagai marduk dalam enuma elish yg muncul mengalahkan 11 monster ciptaan tiamat+tiamat)
Penglihatan daniel mengenai akhir zaman ( daniel 7 ) dan elemen enuma elish
1 In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon, Daniel had a dream, and visions passed through his mind as he was lying in bed. He wrote down the substance of his dream.
2 Daniel said: “In my vision at night I looked, and there before me were the four winds of heaven churning up the great sea.
enuma elish : Dewa anu memberikan bantuan 4 angin dari surga sebagai senjata marduk melawan 11 monster yg lahir dari laut(tiamat)
3 Four great beasts, each different from the others, came up out of the sea. Pada penglihatan daniel,fungsi 4 angin dari surga ini justru membangunkan 4 monster dari laut,pada enuma elish ,jumlahnya 11
4 “The first was like a lion, and it had the wings of an eagle. I watched until its wings were torn off and it was lifted from the ground so that it stood on two feet like a human being, and the mind of a human was given to it.
elemen ini tidak muncul pada enuma elis,tapi Ciri ciri fisik yg digambarkan seperti burung anzu, pada epic anzu,ea(anu) menyarankan strategi supaya ninurta mematahkan Sayap anzu utk mengalahkannya,mematahkan sayap juga muncul dalam mitologi adapa dan mitologi etana.
5 “And there before me was a second beast, which looked like a bear. It was raised up on one of its sides, and it had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth. It was told, ‘Get up and eat your fill of flesh!’
Salah satu dari 11 monster ciptaan tiamat,yaitu ular besar dikatakan memiliki “three ribs in its mouth” diantara gigi giginya
6 “After that, I looked, and there before me was another beast, one that looked like a leopard. And on its back it had four wings like those of a bird. This beast had four heads, and it was given authority to rule.
“authority to rule” seperti qingu yg diberi tablet of destiny oleh tiamat utk legitimasi memimpin pasukannya melawan pasukan dewa muda.
7-8 “After that, in my vision at night I looked, and there before me was a fourth beast—terrifying and frightening and very powerful. It had large iron teeth; it crushed and devoured its victims and trampled underfoot whatever was left. It was different from all the former beasts, and it had ten horns. “While I was thinking about the horns, there before me was another horn, a little one, which came up among them; and three of the first horns were uprooted before it. This horn had eyes like the eyes of a human being and a mouth that spoke boastfully.
tablet 1 enuma elish /spoke boastfully(tiamat kepada qingu) :
153 "I have cast the spell for you and exalted you in the host of the gods,
154 I have delivered to you the rule of all the gods.
155 You are indeed exalted, my spouse, you are renowned,
156 Let your commands prevail over all the Anunnaki."
157 She gave him the Tablet of Destinies and fastened it to his breast,
158 (Saying) "Your order may not be changed; let the utterance of your mouth be firm."
159 After Qingu was elevated and had acquired the power of Anuship,
160 He decreed the destinies for the gods, her sons:
161 "May the utterance of your mouths subdue the fire-god,
162 May your poison by its accumulation put down aggression."
Marduk setelah mengalahkan tiamat mematahkan tanduknya,namun tidak disebutkan berapa jumlah tanduk tiamat, “sebelas” adalah monster yg diciptakan tiamat ( tanduk awal monster ke-4 daniel berjumlah 10,kemudian 3 tercabut utk memberi ruang kemunculan 1 tanduk lagi),kita bias melihat kisah mitologi seth(mesir) dan typhon(greek) terkait “sebelas tanduk” monster sebagai simbol arogansi
9 “As I looked,
“thrones were set in place, and the Ancient of Days took his seat.
His clothing was as white as snow; the hair of his head was white like wool.
His throne was flaming with fire, and its wheels were all ablaze.
A river of fire was flowing, coming out from before him.
Thousands upon thousands attended him; ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him.
The court was seated, and the books were opened.
11 “Then I continued to watch because of the boastful words the horn was speaking. I kept looking until the beast was slain and its body destroyed and thrown into the blazing fire. 12 (The other beasts had been stripped of their authority, but were allowed to live for a period of time.)
13 “In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence. Tablet V enuma elish baris 48-49 : “marduk fashioned,he gathered it together and made it into clouds”
14 He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all nations and peoples of every language worshiped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed. tablet IV :
2 And he took his seat before his fathers to receive kingship.
3 (They said,) "You are the most honoured among the great gods,
4 Your destiny is unequalled, your command is like Anu's.
5 Marduk, you are the most honoured among the great gods,
6 Your destiny is unequalled, your command is like Anu's.
tablet VI :
112 Let him do on earth the same as he has done in heaven:
113 Let him appoint the black-heads to worship him.
114 The subject humans should take note and call on their gods,
115 Since he commands they should heed their goddesses,
116 Let food offerings be brought [for] (?) their gods and goddesses,
117 May they (?) not be forgotten, may they remember their gods,
118 May they . . . their . . , may they . . their shrines.
119 Though the black-heads worship some one, some another god,
120 He is the god of each and every one of us!
121 Come, let us call the fifty names
122 Of him whose character is resplendent, whose achievement is the same.
As he was named by his father Anu from his birth
Interpretasi penglihatan daniel,motif yg berbeda krn sepertinya kepercayaan mesopotamia tidak mengenal mitologi tentang akhir zaman,meski ada indikasi mereka percaya akan hal tersebut tp barangkali mereka tidak memiliki gambaran mengenai kisah dewa dewa mereka mengenai hari kiamat.
tuhan/dewa yg di tua kan
enuma elish : anu
daniel 7 : “ancient of days/most high/ancient one”/ditafsir sebagai yahweh
enuma elish : marduk
daniel 7 : “son of man”/ditafsir sebagai mesias
“rider of the clouds(of heaven)”?
enuma elish : ya,marduk
daniel 7 : ya,son of man
Kerajaan abadi(surga) utk pahlawan sebagai Upah kemenangan?
enuma elish : Ya,marduk
daniel 7 : ya,utk son of man
Semua org dr berbagai bangsa,bahasa menyembah sang pahlawan
enuma elish : ya,utk marduk
daniel 7 : ya,utk son fo man