apkallu dengan penampakan manusia hybrid ikan
apkallu/tujuh org bijak ,menurut mitologi sumeria hidup di era tujuh raja sumeria sebelum peristiwa banjir besar,satu persatu masing masing org bijak utk setiap era raja saat itu
During the reign of Ayalu, the king, [Adapa]† was sage.
During the reign of Alalgar, the king, Uanduga was sage.
During the reign of Ameluana, the king, Enmeduga was sage.
During the reign of Amegalana, the king, Enmegalama was sage.
During the reign of Enmeusumgalana, the king, Enmebuluga was sage.
During the reign of Dumuzi,the shepherd, the king, Anenlilda was sage.
During the reign of Enmeduranki, the king, Utuabzu was sage.
definisi apkallu berubah ubah dalam mitologi mesopotamia,pada awalnya apkallu adalah makhluk setengah dewa dengan penampakan fisik hybrid setengah ikan,atau kadang burung, utk mengajari manusia kebijaksanaan*apkallu pertama,yg bernama oannes,adalah yg menceritakan kepada manusia tentang mitologi enuma elish
apkallu dengan fisik hybrid burung
seven sages :
1.Uanna/oannes, "who finished the plans for heaven and earth"
*pada myth of adapa,simanusia pertama,yg menjadi seven sages pertama adalah adapa,bukan oannes,ada klaim bahwa oannes adalah salah translate dari uanna-adapa,yg berarti keduanya merujuk pada org yg sama
2.Uannedugga, "who was endowed with comprehensive intelligence"
3.Enmedugga, "who was allotted a good fate"
4.Enmegalamma, "who was born in a house"
5.Enmebulugga, "who grew up on pasture land"
6.An-Enlilda, "the conjurer of the city of Eridu"
7.Utuabzu, "who ascended to heaven".
selain mengajarkan kebijaksanaan,apkallu berstatus ditengah tengah antara manusia-dewa,jg dianggap bertanggung jawab membangun kota kota di mesopotamia dan melindunginya hingga kemudian stlh era apkallu,bumi dihukum oleh banjir oleh para dewa dan digantikan era four wise man(manusia bukan demigod lagi)
dalam ritual dan inskripsi keagamaan mesopotamia : bit miseri atau twenty one poultices,diketahui bahwa manusia pada era bimbingan apkallu sering membuat dewa marah :
Incantation. U-Anna, who accomplishes the plans of heaven and earth,
U-Anne-dugga, who is endowed with comprehensive understanding,
Enmedugga, for whom a good destiny has been decreed,
Enmegalamma, who was born in a house,
Enmebulugga, who grew up in pasture land,
An-Enlilda, the conjurer of the city of Eridu,
Utuabzu, who ascended to heaven,
the pure puradu-fishes, the 'puradu'-fishes of the sea, the seven of them,
the seven sages, who have originated in the river, who control the plans of heaven and earth.
Nungalpiriggaldim, the wise (King) of Enmerkars, who had the goddess Innin/Ishtar descend from heaven into the sanctuary,
Piriggalnungal, who was born in Kish, who angered the god Ishkur/Adad in heaven, so that he allowed neither rain nor growth in the land for three years,
Piriggalabzu, who was born in Adab/Utab, who hung his seal on a "goat-fish"† and thereby angered the god Enki/Ea in the fresh water Sea, so that a fuller struck him dead with his own seal,
fourth Lu-Nanna, who was two-thirds a sage, who drove a dragon out of the temple E-Ninkiagnunna, the Innin/Ishtar Temple of (King) Schulgi,
(altogether) four Sages of human descent, whom Enki/Ea, the Lord, endowed with comprehensive understanding.
† Goatfish was the sacred animal of Enki/Ea
Translated to english in Hess & Tsumura 1994, pp. 230–231, original german translation Borger 1974, p. 186
Nudimmud(creator/enki) became angry and summoned the seven sages of Eridu in high tones,
"Bring the document of my Anuship that it may be read before me,
That I may decree the destiny for Mu'ait,
The son who makes me happy, and grant him his desire."
They brought and read the tablet of destinies of the great gods,
He decreed the destiny for him and gave him ..
Anenlildam the purification priest of Eridu,
Made twenty-one "poultices" and gave them to him
LKA 146 Obverse, Lines 5-12. (Lambert 1980, p. 79)
ada persamaan dan perbedaan mendasar antara nephilim dan apkallu,keduanya mengajari manusia kebijaksanaan(nephilim sekaligus mengajari dosa) kepada manusia,interaksi manusia dan nephilim/apkallu(gagal membimbing manusia) tidak memuaskan dewa hingga membuat dewa menghukum bumi dengan banjir besar,keduanya setengah dewa,namun nephilim berwujud raksasa ,sementara apkallu adalah hybrid setengah fisik manusia bercampur binatang(ikan/burung)
The spread of the 'seven sage' legend westwards during the 1st and 2nd millenia has been speculated to have led to the creation of the tale of the Nephilim (Genesis 6:1-4) as recounted in the Old Testament,and may have an echo in the text of the Book of Proverbs (Prov 9:1): "Wisdom built her house. She set out its seven pillars." The story of Enoch ("seventh from Adam") and his ascension to heaven has also been proposed to be a variant or influenced by the seventh apkallu Utuabzu who is also said to have ascended to heaven in the bit meseri.