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China is the world's new science superpower, topping the U.S. in publications

China is the world's new science superpower, topping the U.S. in publications

The National Science Board (NSB) of the National Science Foundation (NSF) has just released its Science & Engineering Indicators 2018, which it describes as, “Broad-based, objective information on the U.S. and international S&E enterprise” — S&E being short for science and engineering. The report shows that, for the first time, China is the world leader in the publication of scientific papers, besting the previous leader, the United States. While there are still lots of areas in which the U.S. leads China and the rest of the world, the new ranking reflects China’s increasing importance in the world of S&E.

It remains true that developed economies, as a group—including the U.S.—continue to produce the lion’s share of research: about 900,000 of some 1.4 million S&E publications in 2016, which is the last year covered by the study. But the trend lines suggest that things are changing: the total output of developed nations has gone up by an anemic 1.7%, while research from developing nations increased by a robust 8.9%. The output from the U.S., having now nearly leveled off at just a .7% increase, saw its share of S&E publications drop from 24.4% in 2006 to 17.8% in 2016. Meanwhile, China rose to Number 1, with 18.6% of the world’s 2016 S&E publications. That’s 426,000 papers from China as opposed to the U.S’s 409,000.

Different countries have different specialties, of course, and China’s is engineering studies. The U.S and E.U. produce more biomedical research, and American research results in a greater number of patents. U.S. and E.U. papers are also cited more frequently than research from China. The countries generating the most citations, however, are Sweden—for research in medicine, biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and engineering—and Switzerland, for biochemistry, medicine, physics, and astronomy.

Economist Robert J. Samuelson writes in The Washington Post, “The actual numbers are breathtaking for the speed with which they've occurred," adding, “China has become—or is on the verge of becoming—a scientific and technical superpower. We should have expected nothing less."

Samuelson’s referring to China’s large, and growing, investment in S&E research and development, which has risen by 18% every year since 2000, vs. the United States’ 4%. That’s 408 billion dollars poured by China’s leaders into R&D per annum. That nation has clearly made science a major priority, seeing it as a potent economic driver, at the same time as the current administration of the U.S. government is de-emphasizing scientific research. In two years, the NSB will be updating its report, at which time the shift in American’s priorities will be more fully reflected in the publication data, and may further exacerbate the current trend.

Samuelson sees growing Chinese S&E capabilities as potentially threatening to the U.S., writing, “One danger is military. If China makes a breakthrough in a crucial technology—satellites, missiles, cyberwarfare, artificial intelligence, electromagnetic weapons—the result could be a major shift in the strategic balance and, possibly, war.” Another concern he cites is China gaining dominance of high-tech areas on which the U.S. currently depends for jobs and lucrative exports, AI, telecommunications, and computers among them.
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However, commentators have questioned this qualification, pointing out a series of problems with it.

The Sunday Times of London commissioned scholars to read the unpublished PhD thesis who noted that the content has little to do with law, appears to contain no original research, and reads like a collection of quotes from existing published works.

Writer Joe Chung compared Xi's works with those of other scholars and found that numerous passages had been copied from previously published works or works published around the same time as Xi's.

In one case, citations were shown to have been copied from another work, including misspellings and punctuation errors in that previously published work. Based on this research, Chung raised the question of whether Xi plagiarised his PhD.

Raja NIPU!!haiyaa news,Kindergarten corruption even young pupils are crooked

A renowned Chinese writer has lamented that corruption and the trading of power and influence is so widespread in society that it has even spilled into some kindergartens and primary schools.

“In kindergarten, a child will tell the teacher: ‘My father works at a coal company. Please let me know if you are short of coal,” historical fiction writer Ling Jiefang, better known by his pen name Eryue He, said in a speech at the Ministry of Agriculture yesterday, the Beijing Times reported.

“At primary school, some pupils enjoy privileges when they become class leaders, such as being exempted from homework,” he said.

“The problem of corruption needs to be tackled from the root, therefore we need to study how to develop an anti-graft system.”

Ling cited historical examples to argue that well-paid officials may also incline to corruption, because people’s desires are endless.

He said the Song dynasty (960-1279) had the highest salary standard for officials in ancient China, with pay 10 times higher than during the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) and six times higher than during the Han dynasty (206BC-AD220).

“However, even with such high salaries, the Song dynasty had only one honest and upright official, Bao Zheng. The Song’s GDP and culture both reached a peak, but it was also the most corrupt dynasty in China’s history,” he said.===>TRADISI yeeeeee!!!???

Tukang TIPU,Doctors fake articles in British journal

A leading British medical journal has retracted 43 published articles after it was found that the authors had fabricated their peer reviews.

As many as 41 of the articles were written by doctors who worked in Chinese hospitals including the highly-respected Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Shanghai Chest Hospital, People's Liberation Army 452 Hospital and Shanghai East Hospital.

According to the UK's Committee on Publication Ethics, the authors used the services of agents involved in "selling pre-written manuscripts to fabricate contact details for peer reviewers."

According to a survey of 1,920 doctors carried out by Zhengzhou-based newspaper Orient Today, 80 per cent believe that fabrication of research and peer reviews is a major issue.==>SICKMEN of Asia bikin MALU waaa!!!

Raja NIPU???...Fraud frenzy? Chinese seek U.S. college admission at any price

"We want Chinese parents and students to know that it's a big issue that a lot of Chinese students don't succeed academically in the U.S." Chen says.

"You can't just have the agencies make them look good or even fake documentation before sending them abroad. They need a lot of guidance."

BASTARD,Hindari Bayar Pajak,Ribuan Pasutri Tiongkok Pura-pura Cerai

Tkg Tipu news,China October trade data shows signs of manipulation, hot money

China's exports and large trade surplus in October pointed to signs of manipulation and inflows of speculative hot money, the official Shanghai Securities News said on Monday, suggesting that firms continue to over-invoice trade deals to avoid capital controls.
"There are signs that faked trade deals have raised their head of late," the newspaper said in a report, quoting economists.

The September data showed a substantial gap between what China said it exported to Hong Kong and what Hong Kong said it imported from the mainland. Economists say signs of hot money inflows suggest firms may be trying to evade capital controls by over-invoicing sales of items such as precious metal sales.

Menghina!!!...China never really stopped being a copycat, and that’s why its tech companies aren’t changing the world
Copying and reverse engineering accelerated new product launches, but eroded China’s competitiveness.....BUKTI,Sickmen of Asia loow IQ waaa!!!!

China’s problem with fake research papers

From the land that brought you poisonous toothpaste, toxic pet food and milk powder that sickens and kills children now comes a new perilous product: fabricated papers in medical journals with fake peer reviews written by fabricated specialists.

In April, the international publishing company Springer Nature announced that it was retracting 107 research papers by Chinese authors after discovering irregularities in the peer-review process of articles published in the journal Tumor Biology between 2012 and 2016.

The retraction of more than 100 papers constituted the largest single withdrawal of academic papers, according to Retraction Watch, which monitors academic fraud.

China has risen rapidly in recent years and has played an increasingly important role not only in the economy but in virtually all spheres. But along the way it also hit a few bumps, when greedy Chinese business people put money ahead of people's safety and welfare in China and abroad.

Thus, in 2007, customers in the United States were told to discard all made-in-China toothpaste after federal officials found toothpaste containing a poison used in antifreeze in several U.S. locations.

The same year, there was a pet-food scare of gigantic proportions when many brands of cat and dog foods manufactured in China were recalled in North America, Europe and South Africa. There were numerous reports of animal deaths as a result of kidney failure.

The following year, within China, thousands of children were sickened after consuming milk powder contaminated with melamine, which had been added to watered-down milk to make it appear more nutritious. Many children developed acute kidney failure, a few of whom died.

Eventually, two people were convicted and executed for their role in adding the industrial chemical to infant formula.

Where academic papers are concerned, China is one of the world's largest producers, churning out more than 300,000 articles a year that are sent to international journals.

Because the government uses publication in peer-reviewed journals as a benchmark of academic performance, there is pressure to publish such papers and an underground industry has sprung up to meet this demand.

Such practices as the writing of fabricated "peer reviews" using phony names reflect a shocking lack of integrity on the part of those who are considered part of the country's academic elite. Most of the authors of the retracted works are not neophytes but are from top medical institutions in China.

After Springer Nature made its announcement, China announced a krackdown on academic fraud, with the Ministry of Science and Technology promising a "zero tolerance" approach.

He Defang, director of the ministry's regulatory division, was quoted as saying: "We should eradicate the problem from its roots."

In fact, even Chinese courts backed stiff penalties for those who fabricate research studies that lead to the approval of harmful drugs and called for punishment that includes a 10-year prison term or even the death penalty.

At the end of July, the Ministry of Science and Technology announced the results of its investigation into the case. It largely upheld the decision made by Springer Nature.

At a press briefing, the ministry announced that, of 521 authors implicated, it deemed 11 to have been innocent, with 24 others still under investigation. Of the others, 486 were found to be guilty of misconduct at various levels, with 102 mainly responsible and 70 secondarily responsible, while 314 were found not to have participated in fraud but to have been negligent.

Twelve papers were purchased from third-party institutions, with 89 papers completed by the authors themselves. Nine were fake in content.

Director He said that the fraud had severely damaged China's national image, and called for a healthier academic environment and harsher punishment for academic misdeeds.

As for punishment of those responsible, the director said that 376 authors had been banned from undertaking research programs for various periods of time, and their qualifications for promotion had been cancelled, their research funds taken away, and awards and honours revoked.

This is a wake-up call for China. Ten years after the scandals arose, both Chinese toothpaste and pet food is safe. Even the melamine scare appears to be largely over.

So China is no doubt fully capable of tackling the problem of academic fraud. But it won't be easy and it is a sign that academic and other institutions need to be strengthened. It is way too early for China to rest on its laurels. A lot of hard work lies ahead, and there is no shortcut to success for anyone, including doctors, scientists and researchers.

The Truth about China’s Cash-for-Publication Policy

Today we get an answer thanks to the work of Wei Quan at Wuhan University, Bikun Chen at Nanjing University of Science and Technology, and Fei Shu at McGill University in Montreal.

These guys have surveyed the financial incentives offered by the top 100 universities in China and mined that data for interesting trends. They say that cash-per-publication incentives are common and that scientists who publish in the top Western journals can earn in excess of $100,000 per paper. What’s more, there are already worrying signs that these financial rewards are skewing the process of science in China.

Cash-for-publications is ‘common practice’

Lucrative offer to secure professor’s journal papers has renewed concerns over ‘unethical’ contracts used to distort university rankings

Jeroen Huisman, professor of higher education at Belgium’s Ghent University, told Times Higher Education how he received an unsolicited email from an individual claiming to act on behalf of a large university in eastern China, which asked if he would be interested in accepting a “distinguished visiting professorship”.

When Professor Huisman, a former University of Bath academic, replied to the email out of curiosity, he was immediately sent a contract stating that he would be paid a total of 300,000 yuan (£35,703) if he produced a total of three journal papers, appearing in Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science, in which Zhengzhou University was listed as the first affiliated institution.

The cash would be paid in monthly instalments over three years or, alternatively, in a lump sum when the journal articles appeared, the contract said. If the required publications did not materialise, Professor Huisman would be obliged to return the money he received, it added.

He was also invited to appear as a second or third author on a journal article in which a Zhengzhou academic would be the first author. Only two visits to the institution in Henan province were stipulated in contract, during which two to four speeches would be given to students, the contract added.

Rui Yang, associate dean cross border/international engagement at the University of Hong Kong’s Faculty of Education, believed that such contracts were “fairly common practice” and that he had received many approaches of this nature.

“I declined quite a few such contracts in 2016 alone,” said Professor Yang, adding that he informed those making these offers that they were “not good enough ethically”.

“However, within Chinese society today, such things are indeed quite OK to both sides,” he said.

China pursues fraudsters in science publishing

China’s main basic research agency is kracking down on scientists who used fake peer reviews to publish papers, demanding that serious offenders return research funding. The move accompanies an announcement by the China Association for Science and Technology (CAST) in Beijing, first reported by state media on 12 November, that it had investigated dozens of scientists involved in peer-review scams. The probe’s findings highlighted the role of China’s many unscrupulous paper brokers, which peddle ghostwritten or fraudulent papers.

“If it wasn't obvious before, it is now difficult to deny China's research community has serious underlying ethical issues,” says Benjamin Shaw, China director for the English-language editing company Edanz in Beijing.

The CAST investigation underscores the role of paper brokers, who profit from China’s publish-or-perish mentality. According to People’s Daily, the association contacted each of the 31 Chinese authors who had papers retracted by BMC. (BMC provided CAST with information when asked but did not collaborate on the investigation, says BMC spokesperson Shane Canning.) Fully 29 authors admitted to using a broker, with many shelling out fees ranging from $600 to more than $5500.

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