Asal-muasal dongeng nenek sihir - serta pembakaran tukang sihir dalam sejarah.

Yang gua tau sih, di Eropa jaman dulu, pendeta-pendeta perempuan bukan dari agama Kristen, tetapi dari agama Pagan (druid). Tetapi pendeta-pendeta Pagan tersebut malah dijelek-jelekkan dan disebut sebagai "nenek sihir" dalam rangka persaingan yang tidak sehat.

Makanya gua sih sudah nggak heran melihat situs semacam Faith Freedom yang suka menjelek-jelekkan keyakinan orang lain. Janan sekarang agama Islam yang dijelek-jelekin, dicap teroris. Jaman dulu agama Pagan yang dijelek-jelekin, dicap tukang sihir.

Witches: The Legacy of the Druidesses

With the spread of Christianity, Christians dubbed female Druids as witches in order to make their power seem evil such as the witches of ancient times to the native Celtic people. The Christians feared the Druids and Druidesses not only because they were a source of great religious power and the center of knowledge for their people, but also many of them preached strongly against conversion to Christianity (Ellis, The Druids, p.72). Consequently, the Christians began to write down information, which put Druids and Druidesses in a bad light and helped perpetuate their ultimate downfall.



Quote:Original Posted By Angkunyo.iful

Parah juga permainan politiknya ya?

Quote:Original Posted By 4mperator.nero

Memang parah. Tapi yang lebih kejam lagi adalah pembakaran penyihir, yaitu wanita-wanita yang dianggap penyihir dibakar hidup-hidup. Contoh kasus sejarah yang cukup terkenal adalah Salem's Witch Burning, yang terjadi di Amerika di saat daerah itu masih berstatus koloni Inggris.

Artikel ini menggambarkan lebih lanjut tentang pembakaran penyihir.


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It would be a mistake to assume that the Roman Catholic Church was solely responsible for the witch-hunts. The Protestant churches persecuted suspected witches with no less zeal than the Catholics. Eschewing papal infallibility, they turn to the concept of the Bible as the ultimate arbiter of truth. And the Bible, as we have seen, clearly spells out the sinfulness of witchcraft and the necessity of imposing the death penalty on witches.

The main figures of the Protestant reformation, Martin Luther (1483-1546) and John Calvin (1509-1564) were staunch advocates of witch-hunting. Luther believed that witches should be burned even if they harmed no one, since they made pacts with the devil. He was personally responsible for at least four witch burnings in Wittenburg. The case for Calvin was simple, as he himself said on one occasion: "The Bible teaches us that there are witches and they must be slain ... this law of God is a universal law." [14] Another prominent Protestant, John Wesley (1703-1791), the founder of the Methodist Church, wrote that anyone who denied the reality of witchcraft was in direct opposition not only to the Bible, but to the suffrage of the wisest and best of men in all ages and nations ... Thus giving up of witchcraft is in effect giving up the Bible. [15]

The protestant lands burned at least as many women for witchcraft as the Roman Inquisition burned men for heresy. The numbers executed as witchcraft by the Protestants were not inconsiderable. In a ninety year period, between 1590 and 1680, 4,400 people were executed in Calvinist Scotland for witchcraft. In Anglican England, for a comparable period, 1542-1736, at least a few hundred people suffered the same fate. While most of those executed were women, even here men were not spared as well. When King James (1566-1625) met with a storm on his return voyage from Denmark, a Scottish physician was accused of using witchcraft to generate the tempest. He was tortured and finally burnt at the stake for witchcraft. [16] In Protestant Scotland, the last legal execution for witchcraft happened in 1722: an old woman was burnt at the stake, accused of turning her daughter into a pony and riding her to a witches sabbat. [17] As late as 1782, witches were still being burnt in Switzerland. The Protestants in New England were not to be left out as well. In the last decade of the seventeenth century, at least twenty people were executed for witchcraft in Salem Massachusetts. [18]
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Salem terletak di Massachusetts, pantai timur Amerika. Saat itu Massachusetts masih berupa koloni Inggris kalau nggak salah, CMIIW.

Sedangkan kasus di Skotlandia, perempuan yang dibakar adalah perempuan tua (an old woman was burnt at the stake). Kasihan wanita tua yang dituduh nenek sihir itu ya.

Quote:Original Posted By Angkunyo.iful


Apakah itu terjadi di zaman dark era eropa?

Quote:Original Posted By 4mperator.nero

Oh, bukan. Salem Witch Burning itu kejadiannya sudah agak modern, tahun 1700-an atau 1600-an kalau nggak salah. Kejadiannya pun bukan di Eropa, tapi di koloni Inggris di Dunia Baru yang kita kenal sekarang sebagai Amerika.

Quote:Original Posted By Angkunyo.iful


Di Inggris sendiri bagaimana? Atau di Italia? Apakah cerita ini juga digadany gadang untuk melibas lawan politik?

Quote:Original Posted By 4mperator.nero

Kalau di Italia gua jarang mendengar, mungkin karena Italia cenderung lebih sekuler dan lebih maju daripada Eropa lainnya (Renaissance dan Age of Reason bermulai di Italia).

Tapi kasus yang paling miris adalah kasus di Skotlandia, di mana seorang wanita tua dibakar hidup-hidup karena dianggap nenek sihir.

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In Protestant Scotland, the last legal execution for witchcraft happened in 1722: an old woman was burnt at the stake, accused of turning her daughter into a pony and riding her to a witches sabbat.

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Itu tahun 1722 lho, sudah bukan Abad Pertengahan lagi.

Quote:Original Posted By Angkunyo.iful


Sebenarnya legenda ini bermulai dari mana?

Quote:Original Posted By 4mperator.nero

Yah, seperti yang telah dibahas sebelumnya, legenda ini berasal dari penyebaran suatu ajaran tertentu di Eropa, di mana ajaran tersebut berusaha menjelek-jelekkan agama Pagan dalam rangka persaingan.

Kenapa nenek sihir yang notabene digambarkan jahat selalu perempuan? Kenapa kakek sihir seperti Merlin digambarkan sebagai tokoh baik? Karena dalam rangka menjelek-jelekkan Druid (pendeta Pagan) yang mayoritasnya adalah perempuan.

Sama saja, di film-film modern, selalu digambarkan teroris orang Arab. Sedangkan di dongeng-dongeng kuno, selalu digambarkan penyihir perempuan yang jahat. Pada akhirnya sama saja lah, propaganda.

Quote:Original Posted By gigiloepalsoe
^
^
simplenya
Maksudnya vatican waktu tu untuk menumpas kaum pagan dengan mebasmi para pemimpin mereka (yang kebanyakan pendeta bergender perempuan) dan kemudian menyebarkan cerita perempuan jahat berkemampuan sihir yang menyebarkan wabah pada masyarakat gitu ?
Jadi kasih stigma negatif pendeta pagan
Black campaign

Quote:Original Posted By 4mperator.nero

Tepat sekali. Tapi ingat, yang senang menjelek-jelekkan pendeta Pagan (Druid) bukan hanya Vatikan. Yang membakar penyihir di Skotlandia itu kan bukan Katholik. Juga, para pelaku Salem Witch Burning bukan Katholik.

Kutiptan dari artikel sejarah:

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The case for Calvin was simple, as he himself said on one occasion: "The Bible teaches us that there are witches and they must be slain ... this law of God is a universal law." [14] Another prominent Protestant, John Wesley (1703-1791), the founder of the Methodist Church, wrote that anyone who denied the reality of witchcraft was in direct opposition not only to the Bible, but to the suffrage of the wisest and best of men in all ages and nations
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The protestant lands burned at least as many women for witchcraft as the Roman Inquisition burned men for heresy. The numbers executed as witchcraft by the Protestants were not inconsiderable. In a ninety year period, between 1590 and 1680, 4,400 people were executed in Calvinist Scotland for witchcraft. In Anglican England, for a comparable period, 1542-1736, at least a few hundred people suffered the same fate.
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[16] In Protestant Scotland, the last legal execution for witchcraft happened in 1722: an old woman was burnt at the stake, accused of turning her daughter into a pony and riding her to a witches sabbat. [17] As late as 1782, witches were still being burnt in Switzerland. The Protestants in New England were not to be left out as well. In the last decade of the seventeenth century, at least twenty people were executed for witchcraft in Salem Massachusetts. [18]
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Sejarah memang topik ilmu pengetahuan yang menarik.